European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences en-US (Editor-in-Chief) (Support) Sat, 15 Jun 2019 06:08:46 -0400 OJS 60 A Psychology Expert System to Determine the Level of Stress in Subjects <p>As programs that imitate an expert’s behavior in a specific area, expert systems can be used, trusted and influential in different areas due to the modeling of the human’s logic and reasoning system, and similarity of the sources of knowledge used by them. In the absence of experts, the intelligent software can measure the level of stress in individuals to a relatively reliable level. The design of intelligent systems in psychological counseling is of great importance due to the impact of this field on the various areas of today's life. The present paper aims to describe how to design and implement a psychology expert system to determine the level of stress in different people using MATLAB software. As one of the most popular psychological tests to determine the level of anxiety, depression and stress in different individual, this test is conducted based on the DASS-21 test, which deduct the result depending on the rules defined and the responses received from the user and determines the level of stress of the individual.</p> Ali Mirzapour Copyright (c) 2019 Ali Mirzapour Sat, 15 Jun 2019 06:13:57 -0400 Oxidative Stress Index As A Public Heath Survey Instrument <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Recently, a method for assigning the probability of disease onset to all people, those clinically ill as well as those without prevalent disease, has been described and termed the Oxidaive Stress Index (OSI). The OSI&nbsp; has also been used to show which disease causting parameters are more contributory to the oset of Alzheimer's disease and projected a&nbsp;similar capability for other diseases.&nbsp;A third application of the OSI is presented here. The OSI can be used as a public health survey tool to shed light on the health impacts on people living or working proximate to points of pollutant releases.</p> Harold I Zeliger Copyright (c) 2019 Harold I Zeliger Mon, 17 Jun 2019 09:07:26 -0400 Hepatic and Cardiac Complications Related to Zika Virus Infection <p>Major global concerns regarding Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, include microcephaly in neonates and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. However, there is evidence for the involvement of other body organs along with neurological disorders. Recent studies indicate that ZIKV like other arboviruses can cause cardiovascular complications, severe liver injury, and coagulation disorders. These possible threats must not be overlooked, and clinicians should be aware of compatible symptoms in patients, so they can manage them properly. The purpose of this review study is to characterize hepato-cardiac complications of Zika virus.</p> Hassan S. Naji Copyright (c) 2019 Hassan S. Naji Thu, 04 Jul 2019 08:00:29 -0400 The Truth About Alcohol and Health <p>The paper discussed here claimed that the old guidelines for safe alcohol consumption should be replaced by much lower ones of about one standard drink per day. However the paper suffers from some statistical problems which lead to misleading results. In addition, by concentrating on mortality and older members of the population it fails to account for important aspects of the effect of alcohol use on individual health. It is shown when the effects of alcohol use on self-reported health and health service utilization are considered what has been traditionally been proposed as safe drinking behavior should continue to be used.</p> James McIntosh Copyright (c) 2019 James McIntosh Mon, 08 Jul 2019 11:49:31 -0400 A Neurobiological Perspective on Psychological Stress <p><strong>The last twenty years have been seen to extensive research on stress providing considerable insight into the biological basis of stress–fight and flight response, autonomic nervous systems and immune systems and cognitive functions interactions like attention, memory, and creativity. Rapid change and development in the field of technology have made the world more competitive. This competency has made life more stressful. This paper encompasses the previous studies conducted till date on stress across the globe, based on neurobiology, sources, and Impact of stress.&nbsp; An extensive literature search with key words stress, sources of stress, Impact of stress and coping strategies and have yielded many studies. In the present chapter, we have focused on how stress affects the cognition, immune system and hormones. These articles were collected mainly from online databases EBSCO and ProQuest. The studies have shown that stressful situations reduce working memory, attention, and concentration resulting in poor work efficiency/performance. The critical issues for future research have been identified and discussed based on the shortcomings of previous literature.</strong></p> Jayasankara Reddy, Unnati G Hunjan Copyright (c) 2019 Jayasankara Reddy, Unnati G Hunjan Mon, 08 Jul 2019 00:00:00 -0400 Public Health Challenges in Somachi Main Abattoir Owerri, Nigeria: A Review and Field Activity Report <p>Abattoir activities are known to pollute the environment, posing significant public health concerns. These activities predispose the workers and nearby communities to some communicable and non-communicable diseases. In the production of animal for food, more attention should be focused on the interactions between animal production and the environment. Meat production in the Somachi main abattoir, should be carried with the best of structures to produce wholesome and safe meat, avoid environmental pollution and circumvent human health risks especially for the sake of families and communities living close by. It is recommended that there should be immediate installation of necessary standard equipment and major functional units of the abattoir such as cold rooms, skinning machines, slaughtering machines, changing rooms for workers and toilets. In the medium/ long term, there should be appropriate technology should be developed, to take care of all the wastes generated in the abattoir, including abattoir wastewater, treatment and recycling for irrigation; and compost and biogas production.</p> <p>The abattoir workers and management need regular updates of health information concerning the peculiar nature of their job with a view to preserving not just their health but also that of their customers and community in general.</p> Chinyere S Obidiegwu, Henry Nnaemeka Chineke, Chika N Ubajaka, Prosper Obunikem Adogu Copyright (c) 2019 Chinyere S Obidiegwu, Henry Nnaemeka Chineke, Chika N Ubajaka, Prosper Obunikem Adogu Mon, 08 Jul 2019 17:33:30 -0400 Comparative Study of Dominant Aeropollen and Allergy-Related Cases in Akoko Environment, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>Analysis of the atmospheric pollen content of an area is important in providing standard baseline information on environmental change, vegetation type, species composition and their utilization for safety health and sustainable development. This study was carried out in fourty randomly selected locations/ sites to examine comparatively, the temporal and spatial relationship between the dominant aeropollen and allergy-related cases in Akoko environment, Ondo State, Nigeria between October, 2016 to September, 2017. The aeropollen were collected with Modified Tauber Sampler using simple random sampling technique and analyzed palynologically. Results showed that a total of 28,205 aeropollen grains belonging to 18 dominant aeropollen types were encountered. The dominant aeropollen include <em>Azadirachta indica</em>, <em>Carica papaya</em>, <em>Casuarina equisetifolia</em>, <em>Ceiba pentandra</em>, <em>Cocos nucifera</em>, <em>Delonix regia</em>, and those of the families Asteraceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae. Aeropollen grains were most abundant between September and January. Rainfall and relative humidity had more negative effect on aeropollen concentration. Furthermore, the occurrence of these dominant aeropollen indicates the availability of allergenic taxa in the atmosphere. A total of 3,826 patients were diagnosed of allergy-related cases with the highest values of 924 and 875 recorded in October and July respectively when aeropollen were most abundant in the studied environment. Adequate environmental monitoring through pollen rain analysis and avoidance of exposure to allergens during their season of prevalence are recommended for safety health and environmental sustainability. Extraction, isolation and quantification of allergenic proteins in the dominant aeropollen grains will provide baseline data for immunological research in the studied area.</p> Benjamin Christopher Essien, Olugbenga Ebenezer Ige Copyright (c) 2019 Benjamin Christopher Essien, Olugbenga Ebenezer Ige Wed, 10 Jul 2019 02:38:55 -0400 Transfixant Injuries of the Mediastinum: Always A Challenge <p>Transfixant injuries of the mediastinum are those in which the aggressor object travels through the midline of the thorax, where the mediastinum is located, being associated with high morbidity and mortality. This review of the literature addressed several aspects of the theme, including diagnosis and treatment. A search was carried out in Pubmed, Scopus and Scielo databases, using indexed descriptors and selection of articles by peers. Mortality rates from 20% to 87% among the victims of this injury modality were observed, varying due to the proportion of unstable patients. In patients undergoing thoracotomy resuscitation, mortality rates between 85-100%. The treatment consisted of maintaining the patient's hemodynamic status, so that patients with imminent death in the emergency service should undergo resuscitation thoracotomy, unstable patients should undergo emergency thoracotomy After a brief clinical/diagnostic evaluation, while stable patients benefit from further investigation and in up to 60% of the cases, do not require a surgical approach. It was concluded, therefore, that such lesions are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their approach differs according to the patient's hemodynamic profile in the emergency room. Emergency services should be prepared to meet this new patient profile, which arrives at prompt care with severe injuries and increasingly critical clinical conditions.</p> Wysterlânyo Kayo Pereira Barros, Isadora Priscila de Oliveira Sizenando, Tâmara Azevedo de Medeiros, Thomas Di Nardi Medeiros, Wagner Gomes Da Nóbrega Silva, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo, Irami Araujo Filho Copyright (c) 2019 Wysterlânyo Kayo Pereira Barros, Isadora Priscila de Oliveira Sizenando, Tâmara Azevedo de Medeiros, Thomas Di Nardi Medeiros, Wagner Gomes Da Nóbrega Silva, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo, Irami Araujo Filho Mon, 15 Jul 2019 06:26:53 -0400 Attitude and Use of Pentavent Vaccine among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria <p>Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) recommended the use of Pentavelent vaccines in Nigeria and other developing countries to replace the DPT (Diphtheria, pertusis and tetanus) vaccine. This was done to increase the uptake of the hepatitis B (HB) and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) vaccines in these countries by capitalising on the uptake of DPT vaccine. <br> Objective: This study aims to assess the attitude and use of pentavalent vaccine in pregnant women attending antenatal care in a Tertiary Hospital in Jos, Plateau State. <br>Methods: The study was carried out among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Plateau Specialist hospital, Jos using a descriptive cross sectional study design. The study was done over a period of four (4) months (August 2018 to December 2018). Simple Random Sampling was used to select 397 women who participated in the study. <br>Results: Respondents were predominantly Christians 283 (71.3%) while Muslims represent about 114 (28.7%) of respondents. About 373 (94%) respondents were married, While 24 (6.0%) percent of the respondents were single parents. Also 213 (53.7%) were business women, Only 48 (12.1%) were civil servants while 85 (21.4%) of the respondents had no form of employment. Majority 257(97.0%) of them had a positive attitude towards the vaccine while only a few 8(3.0%) had a negative attitude.<br>Eighty eight (32.2%) felt pentavalent vaccines were not important. A similar proportion 88 (3.2%) also stated that they would not give their child the vaccine. Most women 252 (95.1%) agreed that mothers should be encouraged to attend immunization regularly. Side effect experienced by children were fever 69 (87.3%), swelling at injection site 21 (26.6%), rash 6 (7.6%). <br>Conclusion and recommendations: All most all pregnant women had a positive attitude towards the vaccine while only a few had a negative attitude. Nine in ten women had children who had received pentavalent vaccine.<br>Health workers should improve efforts at health education on immunization especially on adverse effects following immunization (AEFI), reasons for missed opportunities, coverage of hard to reach areas or distant areas via special immunization or home visiting to administer vaccine.</p> Kingsley Chinedu Okafor Copyright (c) 2019 Kingsley Chinedu Okafor Mon, 15 Jul 2019 07:01:32 -0400