European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Open Science en-US European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 2593-8339 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their work, and grant this journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Preterm Birth, Prevention, Prediction, Care https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1441 <div> <p class="abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Preterm delivery is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as occurring before 37 weeks of pregnancy or in less than 259 days following the start of a woman's last menstrual cycle<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The mortality rate for children under the age of five is extremely concerning. Prematurity is the leading cause of death before the age of five around the world, and even when exceptional medical care is provided, children who survive still face long-term physical, developmental, neurological, and cognitive problems. According to the World Health Organization, 15 million babies are born prematurely each year, at least three weeks before their due dates. The top obstetricians, neonatologists, geneticists, microbiologists, immunologists, epidemiologists, health policy specialists, and bioengineers at Stanford are still conducting research to learn the main reason or causes of preterm delivery as well as the science of preterm birth</span></p> </div> <div> <p class="abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This article reviewed how preterm birth occurs and the risk factors in pregnant women. The conclusion of the review may eventually help experts to detect and reduce preterm deliveries, giving more kids a safe arrival and a healthy start in life.</span></p> </div> Monisola A. Popoola Beatrice Ohaeri Iyanuoluwa O. Ojo Oluwatoyin Babarimisa Copyright (c) 2023 Monisola A. Popoola, Beatrice Ohaeri, Iyanuoluwa O. Ojo, Oluwatoyin Babarimisa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 5 1 6 10 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1441 Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) and the Way Forward-A Brief Review https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1629 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Menstruating girls confront a variety of obstacles in school settings, challenges that can have an impact on their safety, education, health and wellbeing, and even their sense of self-worth. Global attention has recently been focused on the difficulties schoolgirls face managing their menstrual hygiene, especially in low-income countries. Therefore, enhancing Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) for girls globally will enhance their lifestyle in a variety of ways. It will also assist to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), such as SDG 3 on excellent health, SDG 4 on good education, SDG 5 on gender egalitarianism, and SDG 6 on the need for safe water and sanitation. Even though there are more evident supportive decisions and investments needed in policy and programming, remarkable progress has been made in the engagement of relevant sectors involved in this issue. To ensure MHM programs are furthering equality, it is still important to include groups for the larger agenda. Girls who are differently abled, school dropouts, girls in co-educational schools, and girls in emergency situations are some of the examples. By 2024, all girls should be made aware of and at ease with their menstrual cycles, and they should manage them in a pleasant, safe, and respectable manner while attending school. The "MHM in Ten" meeting, which was held in 2014, envisioned to create a ten-year framework (2014-2024) for MHM in schools. It was organized by UNICEF and Columbia University. In relevant to this vision, five remarkable priorities were established. This article summarizes the key insights to address and support the importance of global commitments towards MHM to expand its progress to reach its vision by 2024. This paper also reviews the present knowledge gaps in research on MHM in school-aged girls and emphasize prospects to draw the attention of government sectors, funders, and other organizations to allocate adequate resources. In summary, despite significant advances in the evidence base for MHM research, there are still a few critical disparities present in the current collective understanding. New studies are required to close these gaps which should suffice the needs of the international community to comprehend the scope of MHM problems among schoolgirls, the efficacy of MHM initiatives, and the expenses associated with their implementation. It is also necessary to create an efficient puberty policy for the educational field emphasizing MHM and menstruation education.</p> Vanitha Thurairasu Copyright (c) 2023 Vanitha Thurairasu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-23 2023-01-23 5 1 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1629 Extra-papillary Myelin Fiber of Incidental Finding: A Case Report https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1579 <p style="font-weight: 400;">We report an observation of an uncommon form of extra-papillary myelin fibers of fortuitous discovery in a patient, 55 years old, who consulted for a change of correction.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The clinical aspect of the fundus led to the diagnosis of retinal myelin fibers in front of a whitish placard with a finely striated scalloped edge, partially masking the vessels and located at the level of the inferior temporal arch.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">These fibers, contiguous to the papilla or distant from it, have an incidence varying from 0.57% to 0.98% according to studies and their pathogenesis is still uncertain. This congenital anomaly of the retinal fibers of clinical diagnosis is often asymptomatic, but can however be associated with other ocular disorders.</p> Soukaina Haddougui Mounia Bouchaar Salma Bajjouk Yassine Mouzari Karim Reda Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2023 Soukaina Haddougui, Mounia Bouchaar, Salma Bajjouk, Yassine Mouzari, Karim Reda, Abdelbarre Oubaaz http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 1 2 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1579 Birdshot Chorioretinopathy: Report of A Case https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1603 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a rare idiopathic pathology. It is characterized by diffuse white spots in the retina and especially in the middle periphery. All patients are carriers of antigen HLA 29. Its treatment is based in the administration of corticosteroids and suppressant medication. We report the case of a young patient who had birdshot chorioretinopathy.</p> Soukaina Belfaiza Firas Hamza Copyright (c) 2023 Soukaina Belfaiza, Firas Hamza http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 8 9 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1603 Intestinal Trichobezoard (Rapunzel Syndrome) Secondary to Wool Ingestion: A Case Report https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1505 <div> <p>Gastrointestinal trichobezoar is a rare syndrome, defined by the accumulation inside the digestive tract of non-digestible material usually formed by hair rarely by textile fibers (wool of carpets or clothes), and source of many diagnostic and therapeutic errors and delays in the absence of evocative psychic context.</p> </div> <div> <p>We report the case of a 15-year-old adolescent with a history of carpet wool ingestion, who presented to the visceral emergency department with an occlusive syndrome, evolving since 4 days of his admission with alteration of his general state.</p> </div> <div> <p>Abdominal examination found a painful abdominal meteorism with no clinically palpable mass.</p> </div> <div> <p>The abdominal scan showed a distension of small intestine, suggesting an intestinal invagination.</p> </div> <div> <p>The surgical intervention was an extraction of a trichobezoard (wool from carpets) by the anal way<span lang="TR">.</span></p> </div> Mounir Bouali Abdelhak Ettaoussi Abdelillah El Bakouri Fatimazahra Bensardi Khalid El Hattabi Abdelaziz Fadil Copyright (c) 2023 Mounir Bouali, Abdelhak Ettaoussi, Abdelillah El Bakouri, Fatimazahra Bensardi , Khalid El Hattabi, Abdelaziz Fadil http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 3 5 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1505 Angioid Streaks: Report of A Case https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1604 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Angioid streaks are rare lesions of the fundus, which are often associated with general pathologies. These are stripes that are visible at the fundus, dark in appearance, and that diverge from the papilla. They are due to anomalies of the elastic fibers in which there is a deposit of calcium. Angioid streaks are described in many pathologies: Paget's disease; Sickle cell disease and Marfan's syndrome. There is no treatment for angioid streaks. We report the case of a patient presenting with angiod streaks on the fundus in the context of marfan’s syndrome.</p> Soukaina Belfaiza Yassine Mouzarii Abdelbare Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2023 Soukaina Belfaiza, Yassine Mouzarii, Abdelbare Oubaaz http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 6 7 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1604 Attitude, Knowledge, Perception, Behavioural, Cultural and Religious Practices Influencing Transmission of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Owena, Kajola and Baiken Communities Bordering Owena Reservoir/Dam, Ondo East Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1600 <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Background</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: Human urogenital schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in Nigeria, especially in three communities, Owena, Kajola and Baiken bordering Owena Reservoir/Dam, Ondo East Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria. Unfortunately, scientific-based facts about attitude, knowledge, perception, behavioural, cultural and religious practices influencing the transmission of urogenital schistosomiasis are grossly scanty and without which sustainable control strategies cannot be planned. The aim of the study was to identify the roles played by the aforementioned variables in the transmission of the disease with a view to fashioning out sustainable control strategies of the disease.</span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Materials and Methods</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: A structured questionnaire was used to collect basic information on personal biodata, perception, health history, etc from the subjects. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analysis.</span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Results</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: Summary of significant associations between knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics of the three communities combined showed the following: gender status (p&lt;0.000), distribution of latrine facilities in the communities (p&lt;0.000), ignorance of how urogenital schistosomiasis is transmitted (p&lt;0.002), self-medication urogenital schistosomiasis treatment (p&lt;0.000), frequency of visits to the reservoir (p&lt;0.001) (see Table I). Further results of this study revealed that participants’ perception, behavioural, cultural, religious practices were not significantly associated with the danger of urogenital schistosomiasis (p&lt;0.110), snails seen around reservoir (p&lt;0.259), reservoir ever visited before (p&lt;0.24), household having toilet facilities (p&lt;0.32), blood passed in urine (p&lt;0.86), treatment ever received for urogenital schistosomiasis infection (p&lt;0.86) (see Table III).</span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Conclusion</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: The overall findings of this twenty-four-month (August 2013 – July 2015) study showed that people orientations such as attitude, knowledge, perception, behavioural, cultural, religious practices about the causal factors, transmission cycles, negative impacts of urogenital schistosomiasis are grossly scanty and these could pose a threat to sound intervention strategies of the control of the disease. Control strategies should involve mass sensitization focused on health education, and on transmission to emphasise the role commonly played by water contact activities. Frequency of occurrence of snails’ host and urination habits should be looked into, as well. Enlightening teachers, parents to control the water contact behaviour of their wards especially the age group 5-15 years which accounts for 52% of total index of exposure. Adequate provision of modern alternative sources of water supply (e.g. pipe-borne water) with a view to reducing the population index of exposure, should be encouraged.</span></p> </div> Bayo Joshua Peletu Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie Aloysius Obinna Ikwuka Copyright (c) 2023 Bayo Joshua Peletu, Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie, Aloysius Obinna Ikwuka http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 23 30 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1600 Relevance of Plasmodium falciparum Biomarkers in the Treatment and Control of Malaria https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1450 <div> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">We report here a dual-ELISA method to measure Malaria biomarkers concurrently in the same aliquot of blood sample. A correlation between the parasite numbers and ELISA values determined and the figures were used to establish a standard graph. Thick blood smears prepared from spiked blood samples were also Giemsa stained and parasite density determined by microscopy (It was thereby possible to undertake an objective comparison between lactate dehydrogenase and histidine- rich- proteins levels assessed by ELISA and parasite density determined by microscopy from the same spiked aliquot). The presence of lactate dehydrogenase and histidine- rich- proteins is localized and visualized by fluorescent antibody techniques. Twenty-two patient blood samples were retrospectively analyzed for the levels of pLDH and HRPs and their level was quantified in each blood sample. Fresh blood samples from malaria patients seeking care at a healthcare facility in an endemic area were then collected and separated into plasma and infected red blood cells and parasitemia levels determined. The biomarkers which were released into plasma from circulating and sequestered parasites provide a more accurate picture and indicate degree of disease severity. Since lactate dehydrogenase is known to have a short half-life compared to the histidine-rich proteins, its plasma level is believed to reflect on the number of metabolically active parasites more accurately and more reliable indicator of clinical outcome. In contrast, histidine -rich proteins accumulate in plasma and measurable levels persist long after patients have been treated and parasites cleared from their system. Best practice may now call for a pre-eminent role for microscopy and PCR in plasmodium species confirmation, a continued role for newer histidine-rich protein assays in epidemiological studies and control, and the preferential use of parasite lactate dehydrogenase in the clinical management of the disease. Data presented here from spiked blood samples as well as naturally infected patient samples provide evidence that by splitting whole blood samples into RBC-pellet and plasma, determination of parasite biomarkers in split sample fractions gives a true picture of malaria parasites present in humans and this may improve the accuracy of models that attempt to predict parasite burdens more accurately, and so clinical correlations.</span></p> </div> G-Halli Rajasekariah Samuel K. Martin Anthony M. Smithyman Bernard J. Hudson Copyright (c) 2023 G-Halli Rajasekariah, Samuel K. Martin, Anthony M. Smithyman, Bernard J. Hudson http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 31 40 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1450 Surgical Treatment of Inguinal Hernia Retrospective Comparative Study of 100 Cases Evaluating the Results of Both Techniques (Shouldice vs. Lichtenstein) https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1586 <div> <p>Inguinal hernia is a frequent pathology affecting mainly men, and is defined by the emergence of abdominal viscera through an area of natural weakness in the abdominal wall formed by the inguinal region.</p> </div> <div> <p>They include congenital hernias, which arise from the lack of obliteration of the peritoneovaginal canal, and acquired hernias, which are related to the weakening of the muscular and fascial structures of the inguinal region.</p> </div> <div> <p>In view of its extremely serious evolutionary risk, the treatment of inguinal hernia is exclusively surgical and almost systematic.</p> </div> <div> <p>The real challenge in the treatment of groin hernia is the use of the most suitable surgical repair technique.</p> </div> <div> <p>Our work is a retrospective comparative study of 100 patients operated on for inguinal hernia, 50% of whom were operated on using the Shouldice technique and 50% using the Lichtenstein technique in the visceral surgery department (Wing 3) of the CHU IBN ROCHD OF CASABLANCA over a period of 2 years from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2006.</p> </div> <div> <p>The aim of our study is to discuss the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, to compare the results of the surgical treatment and the prognosis of the two techniques.</p> </div> Amal Hajri Abdelhak Ettaoussi Driss Erguibi Rachid Boufettal Saad Rifki Jai Farid Chehab Copyright (c) 2023 Amal Hajri, Abdelhak Ettaoussi, Driss Erguibi , Rachid Boufettal , Saad Rifki Jai, Farid Chehab http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 41 43 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1586 Health Related Quality of Life among ESRD Patients on Hemodialysis and Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Comparative Study https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1535 <div> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">CKD-5 treatment is expensive and inaccessible for the majority of the Pakistani population. QOL is a valuable research tool in assessing the outcome of therapeutic interventions in chronic diseases. Unfortunately, there is no information available on the QOL in CKD-5 patients in Pakistan. In this present study, we sought to compare the difference between the quality of life in hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. The study was conducted on hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients at Pakistan Kidney and Liver Institute and Research Centre (PKLI&amp;RC). The study subjects were selected by Convenient Sampling. A comparative study was done to assess the HRQOL between hemodialysis and renal transplant recipients. The Urdu version of the WHOQOL-BREF was used. The mean score of items within all 4 domains was used to calculate the domain score. Descriptive analysis included calculation of frequency, percentage and mean for presentation of socio-demographic and WHOQOL-BREF scores in hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. The sociodemographic characteristics were significantly different between the two groups. KTRs were younger than HD patients and were generally more educated. A larger number of people in the hemodialysis group as compared to those in the KTR group were found to be unemployed. Patients in KTR group had a much better perception of quality of life (77.5 vs 58) and health (85 vs 63.5) as compared to the hemodialysis patients. KTRs had significantly higher HRQOL scores than HD patients in all 4 domains with the greatest difference seen in physical domain. KTRs also reported fewer ER visits and hospitalizations. The QOL scores of KTRs were better than hemodialysis patients in all four domains: Physical, psychological, social relationship, environmental health. Hence, renal transplant services should be encouraged for people with ESRD and should be made easily available to patients.</span></p> </div> Hamza Attiq Abdullah Tariq Adil Manzoor Niempa Bacani Maggie James Omama Samour Aizaz Rafiq Chaudhry Izza Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2023 Hamza Attiq, Abdullah Tariq, Adil Manzoor, Niempa Bacani, Maggie James, Omama Samour, Aizaz Rafiq Chaudhry, Izza Iftikhar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 44 48 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1535 Comorbidities and New Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Women Living with HIV Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Lagos, Nigeria https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1601 <div> <p class="abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Background</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: There is limited gender stratified data in many type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) studies in Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Comorbidities, New Onset of T2DM and risk factors influencing predisposition to T2DM among women living with HIV (WLWH) and receiving Antiretroviral Therapies.<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Methods</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: This was a cross-sectional study of females who were 15 years and above with HIV and/or without pulmonary TB attending HIV and TB DOTS clinics in Lagos, Nigeria from January 2019 to October 2021. The socio-demographic data of participants were obtained using questionnaire. Participants who were not known diabetic cases were tested for diabetes based on WHO and ADA standards using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test, fasting plasma glucose and 2 hour 75 g oral glucose post prandial test. CD4 and CD8 counts were carried out using flow cytometer and their cytokines’ levels were determine using ELISA technique. HIV positive patients with signs and symptoms of TB (presumptive TB) were tested using sputum smear microscopy method and gene X-pert technique. We measured Body mass index (BMI) using International System of Units (kg/m<sup>2</sup>). Information on age, gender, Antiretroviral therapy (ART), values of CD4, weight, height, viral load and cholesterol test results less than 6 months were obtained from the patients’ folders.<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Results</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: A total of 187 WLWH were studied. Their mean age was 41.93±10.32 years. Fifty-five (27.9%) had BMI values of ≥ 30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. Twenty-one (11.2%) had impaired glucose level. Those with T2DM at baseline were 5(2.7%), 17(9.1%) later developed T2DM. There was strong association between newly developed T2DM and obesity odd ratio (OR) 8.21(95% CI 1.30-51.99), interleukin (IL-): IL-6 OR 4.50 (95% CI 0.58-35.15), viral load with OR as 1.34(0.48-3.75), knowledge of diabetes OR 2.24 (95% CI 0.43-11.62), consumption of alcohol OR 2.03(95% CI 0.60-6.90). Twenty (10.7%) WLWH developed pulmonary TB while receiving ART. Co-morbidities recorded were: HIV/T2DM 14(7.5%), HIV/TB 21(11.2%), HIV/TB/T2DM 7(3.7%). A total of 42(22.7%) were on 2nd line ART.<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Conclusion</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: Prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection, HIV/T2DM comorbidity and HIV/TB/T2DM multimorbidity were high. Also the prevalence of incident TB and new cases of T2DM among the study population were high. There was positive association between development of T2DM while receiving ART and obesity, IL-6, knowledge of diabetes and alcohol consumption. Protease inhibitors were found to influence the development of T2DM among WLWH while receiving ART.<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Recommendation</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: There is need for promoting awareness of T2DM and its risk factors among WLWH who are receiving ART.</span></p> </div> Veronica Nnenna Victor Enya Onaiwu Idahosa Enabulele Endurance Anthony Ophori Nkiruka Nonyelum Odunukwe Copyright (c) 2023 Veronica Nnenna Victor Enya, Onaiwu Idahosa Enabulele, Endurance Anthony Ophori, Nkiruka Nonyelum Odunukwe http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 6 11 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1601 Lower Creatine Kinase, IL-6 Levels and Femoral Offset Values Lead to Better Outcome Harris Hip Score Post Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty Surgery Day 14 and Day 30 https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1635 <div> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty (HA) procedure allows patients after a neck femur fracture to be able to perform early mobilization. Hence complications due to prolonged bed rest could be prevented. Early mobilization should be achieved immediately after bipolar HA surgery. There are several factors affecting early mobilization in patients, some of which include tissue damage during surgery (creatine kinase), inflammatory status of patients (IL-6) and implant position (femoral offset). This study aims to show whether lower levels of creatine kinase, IL-6 and femoral offset can result in better Harris Hip Score following Bipolar HA surgery day 14 and day 30. By knowing the influencing factors, it is hoped that more accurate management could be carried out. Thus, the outcome parameters of early mobilization in the form of returning to daily life and work activities are getting better and the risk of complications can be avoided. This study compared the Harris Hip Score (HHS) in patients who'd already had Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty using a prospective cohort study design (Bipolar HA) who met the inclusion criteria at the Central General Hospital (RSUP) Prof I.G.N.G Ngoerah Denpasar and provided them informed consent. In order to do descriptive analysis, normality and homogeneity tests, and proportion comparison analysis, the research data was entered into a research sheet and processed using a computer and the SPSS for Windows version 26 program. In this study, the sample data (n=32) was not normally distributed. Lower levels of IL-6 (&lt; 15 pg/ml), and FO values ​​(​​&lt; 42.5 mm) resulted in better HHS values ​​in patients following Bipolar HA surgery day-14. Additionally, lower levels of CK (&lt; 75 U/L), IL-6 (&lt; 15 pg/ml), and FO values (​​&lt; 42.5 mm) ​​resulted in better HHS values ​​in patients following bipolar HA surgery on day-30. Chi-Square analysis showed that the results of CK levels day-14 were statistically insignificant (p= 0.072&gt;0.05), while the results of CK levels day-30 were statistically significant (p=0.033&lt;0.05). Moreover, chi-Square analysis showed that the results of day-14 and day-30 were statistically significant on IL-6 levels (p-0.016&lt;0.05 and p= 0.015&lt;0.05), and FO values (p= 0.012&lt;0.05 and p-0.033&lt;0.05). It is concluded that lower levels of IL-6, and FO values resulted in better HHS values in patients following Bipolar HA surgery day-14. Additionally, lower levels of CK, IL-6, and FO values resulted in better HHS values in patients following bipolar HA surgery on day-30.</span></p> </div> IGN Bagus Andhika Pramana I Ketut Siki Kawiyana IGN Wien Aryana Putu Astawa I Wayan Suryanto Dusak I Ketut Suyasa Copyright (c) 2023 IGN Bagus Andhika Pramana, I Ketut Siki Kawiyana, IGN Wien Aryana, Putu Astawa, I Wayan Suryanto Dusak, I Ketut Suyasa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 49 52 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1635 Caregivers’ Knowledge on Epilepsy and Its Relationship with Quality of Life https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1496 <p style="font-weight: 400;">It is widely accepted that epilepsy is a disease that affects not only patients but also their families. The disease has a relevant impact on caregivers’ quality of life. The study aimed to determine caregivers’ knowledge of epilepsy and its relationship with their quality of life. Total of 308 participants were recruited. The Awareness Knowledge Attitude Questionnaire and the Adult Carer-Quality of Life (AC-QoL) questionnaire were used. The result demonstrates a significant association between caregivers’ knowledge levels and the level of their quality of life. A significant association was identified between two socio-demographic characteristics-marital status and educational level-and level of knowledge. Furthermore, significant associations were found between other socio-demographic characteristics and the level of their quality of life: religion, marital status, educational level and monthly income. The findings of the study indicate that caregivers with high levels of epilepsy-related knowledge experience a moderate quality of life. Therefore, epilepsy support groups for caregivers are important as these would provide the appropriate emotional and practical support needed to improve the quality of live among caregivers.</p> Lee Khuan Nurul Nadhirah Hamzah Nor'ain Abdul Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 Lee Khuan, Nurul Nadhirah Hamzah, Nor'ain Abdul Rashid http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-24 2023-01-24 5 1 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1496 Acute Kidney Injury and Urinary Sediment Abnormalities in Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Morocco https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1589 <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Background</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 targets mainly the respiratory system, but may in severe cases affect other organs, causing, multiorgan damage, including cardiac injury and acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of AKI and urinary sediment abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 and evaluate the associated factors and outcomes in hospitalized patients. </span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Material and</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> <em>Methods</em>: All laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the hospital during this period were involved in the study from 1<sup>st</sup> of July to the 1st of August 2020. Patients were subjected to Kidney function tests (KFT) and complete urine analysis. </span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Results</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: Eighty-six COVID-19 patients were included in the present study. The median age of the patients was 43,29 years, and 53,5 % were males. AKI developed in 17 patients (19,8%). Of these, 23,5% required renal replacement therapy (RRT), and 13,9 % patients died. 45 (51.7%) patients displayed abnormality in urinalysis, such as proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and or urinary urothelial cell. Elderly patients, patients with associated comorbidities are more commonly affected. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (95%CI)]: 1.006[0.95-1.06], p=0.8], diabetes mellitus (HR [95%CI]: 10,68 [1,78-64], p=0,009) and hyperleucocytosis (HR [95%CI]: 4,63 [1,01-21,1], p=0,04) were independent predictors of AKI. </span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Conclusion</span></em><span lang="EN-US">: Kidney dysfunction is common among patients with COVID-19. Patients who develop AKI have bad outcomes this brings us to give more interest in urinalysis and kidney impairment in COVID-19 patients, which should be monitored regularly.</span></p> </div> Marouane Jabrane Othmane Benlenda Laila Lahlou Mohamed Bouchoual Mohamed Aghrouch Hicham Nassik Mohamed Arrayhani Copyright (c) 2023 Marouane Jabrane, Othmane Benlenda, Laila Lahlou, Mohamed Bouchoual, Mohamed Aghrouch, Hicham Nassik, Mohamed Arrayhani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 12 16 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1589 Evaluating Non-IgE-mediated Allergens’ Immunoreactivity in Patients with “Intrinsic” Persistent Rhinitis with Help of the Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Test https://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/1624 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Background: </em>The non-IgE-mediated immunoreactivities against common allergens are little understood conditions, especially in patients suffering from allergic respiratory disorders such as persistent rhinitis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Objective: </em>The present study aims to evaluate the non-IgE-mediated immunoreactivity against common allergens, in allergen-reactive patients clinically diagnosed with persistent rhinitis without evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity against these allergens.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Methods: </em>A group of 533 outpatients diagnosed with non-IgE-mediated allergen-reactive persistent rhinitis, were submitted to <em>ex vivo</em> Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition Tests (LAIT) with extracts of <em>Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus</em>, <em>Hevea brasiliensis</em> latex, dog dander, cat dander, cow’s milk proteins, beekeeping pollen and a mixture of airborne fungal extracts.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Results: </em>Cascade distribution column graphs were assembled according to the LAIT results among six ranges of Leukocyte Adherence Inhibition (LAI) of each allergen group. A column graph was plotted with the mean LAI results for each antigen for comparison.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Conclusion</em>: The LAIT is a potential tool to quantify the overall non-IgE-mediated cellular/humoral immunoreactivity against common allergens in patients clinically diagnosed with persistent rhinitis. Most studies must be done to evaluate the potential of the LAIT as a screening <em>ex vivo </em>provocation test to select the more reactive allergens to perform the diagnostic <em>in vivo</em> provocation tests.</p> Celso Eduardo Olivier Daiana Guedes Pinto Ana Paula Monezzi Teixeira Jhéssica Letícia Santos Santana Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves Santos Regiane Patussi Santos Lima Everton Salgado Monteiro Copyright (c) 2023 Celso Eduardo Olivier, Daiana Guedes Pinto, Ana Paula Monezzi Teixeira, Jhéssica Letícia Santos Santana , Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves Santos, Regiane Patussi Santos Lima, Everton Salgado Monteiro http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 5 1 17 22 10.24018/ejmed.2023.5.1.1624