European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 2593-8339 Presenting a Medical Expert System for Diagnosis and Treatment of Nephrolithiasis <p>Expert systems aim to employ expert skills for non-expert person. These designs simulate intellectual and practical performance of human making the performance of expert systems close to that of an expert human. Various expert systems have been proposed in medicine, thus this area is attracting attention. Most problems in modern medicine are very complicated and there is no logic reason for accurate decision making. To this end, doctors decide arbitrarily and variably. On the other hand, large volume of medical information makes decision making more difficult while modern technologies add to volume of information and make problems more difficult. Considering these problems, there is a great challenge in medical diagnosis which requires decision-making support systems. In this paper, an expert system is presented for diagnosis and treatment of nephrolithiasis in which knowledge required for diagnosis and treatment is stored as rules in the system knowledge base. If experts are absent, diagnosis and treatment can be done reliably. Expert systems can be used as decision support by the users. However, currently, they cannot replace experts.&nbsp;</p> Mirpouya Mirmozaffari Copyright (c) 2019 Mirpouya Mirmozaffari 2019-05-17 2019-05-17 1 1 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.1.20 Low Self-esteem and its Relation with Psychological Distress among Dental Students <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;">Since self-esteem has been recognized to predict health and psychological well-being, it is crucial to assess the self-esteem and its relation with psychological distress. Methodology: This study was conducted among 257 dental students. The psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) while self-esteem was assessed using the adult form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results: Female students had significantly lower self-esteem compared to male students (51.4 and 59.1 respectively). There is a strong negative correlation between psychological distress and self-esteem (r= -0.5, p&lt;0.00). Students with psychological distress had significantly lower mean self-esteem score compared to those who are not distressed (43.07 and 60.03 respectively). Conclusion: Low self-esteem is higher among female students and self-esteem is negatively correlated to psychological distress among undergraduate students.</p> Ali Sabri Radeef Ghasak Ghazi Faisal Copyright (c) 2019 Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Ali Sabri Radeef 2019-05-17 2019-05-17 1 1 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.1.21 Effect of the Perioperative Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion of 1.25 mg/kgBW/H on the Bowel Sound Recovery and Pain Intensity after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy <p>The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion of 1.25mg/kgBW/H on the bowel sounds recovery and pain intensity after laparoscopy cholecystectomy. The research used the experimental method, i.e. 42 patients who met the inclusive criteria and who would undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery under the general anesthesia, using the randomized double blind technique, and then were divided into two groups. The Treatment Group (KL, n = 21) received perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion of 1.25 mg/kgB/H, while the control group (KN, n = 21) received the perioperative infusion of placebo of 0.9 NaCl. After the surgery, the assessments of the bowel sounds recovery time, the NRS scores at 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h and the fentanyl requirement within 24 hours with PCA were conducted. The data were analyzed using the Chi square test, independent-t test, and Mann-Whitney test with p&lt;0.05 to reveal the statistical significance. The research results indicated that the time of the bowel sounds recovery in KL group was 147.14 ± 24.928 minutes, faster than in KN group it was 322.86 ± 34.079 minutes (p=0.000). The postoperative NRS score at 2h and 6h in KL group was lower than the KN group with p=0,000, but there was no significant difference in the postoperative NRS score at 12h and 24h in both groups (p&gt;0.05). The postoperative fentanyl requirement was lower in KL group (114.29 ± 31.196) mcg compared to the KN group (258.33 ± 27.764) mcg with p=0.000. The Perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion of 1.25 mg/kgBB/h could speed up the bowel sounds recovery and reduce the pain intensity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Syafri Kamsul Arif Yongki Rawung A. Muh Takdir Musba A. Husni Tanra Copyright (c) 2019 Syafri Kamsul Arif 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 1 1 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.1.15 Predicting Alzheimer's Disease Onset <p>Recently, a method for assigning the probability of disease onset to all people, those clinically ill as well as those without prevalent disease has been described and termed the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI). The OSI, as originally formatted, does not predict which disease will more likely develop, only that further disease is predicted with increased OSI. It is hypothesized here that the OSI may be used to demonstrate which parameters are more contributory to the onset of a particular disease if it is measured at the time of onset of that disease. To test this hypothesis, the OSI has been reformatted to serve in that capacity for Alzheimer's disease (AD) with the anticipation that the OSI could serve to predict not only the likelihood of onset, but also identify those parameters that are most contributory to AD.</p> Harold I. Zeliger Copyright (c) 2019 Harold I Zeliger 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 1 1 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.1.16