Pterygium is an ocular surface disease characterized by invasive fibrovascular growth due to pathological proliferation and inflammation on the conjunctival and corneal tissue. Its occurrence has been associated with chronic ultraviolet exposure, thus becoming one of the most common eye problems in tropical regions worldwide. Although pterygium rarely causes severe visual disturbances or blindness, it often becomes a distressing problem because of the high recurrence rate and unsatisfactory cosmetic outcomes, despite receiving removal management. In recent decades, studies regarding molecular mechanisms and management of pterygium have been advanced. This review provides a brief update on the mechanism and management to achieve more optimal and satisfactory pterygium therapeutic approaches.
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