Nasal smear is a valid method used to distinguish inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the cytological picture and neutrophilic infiltration of nasal secretions of children from a primary school within Enugu metropolis in Enugu State, Nigeria. The study included 100 apparently normal pupils, 20 each from grade levels 1 to 5. The blow-out technique was used to obtain samples from the nasal cavity for smear preparation on slides. May-Grunwald-Giemsa was used to stain the smears for light microscopical examination. Smears were assessed for the presence of infiltrating inflammatory cells and a semi-quantitative grading of neutrophilic infiltration was conducted on each sample to indicate either absent, few, moderate or many. Mean age of participants is 6.25±0.44 years (range: 6–11 years). Results revealed that age and grade level of study had a strong association with the grade score of neutrophilic infiltration (p<0.05). Grade level 1 pupils, the youngest group (mean age: 6.25±0.44 years), had the highest abnormal cytological picture and neutrophilic infiltration while those in grade levels 3 to 5 who were older, were lower. There was no association between gender and neutrophilic infiltration. It can be concluded that significantly increased neutrophilic infiltration are obtained in the nasal secretions of younger schoolchildren below the age of 9 than the older pupils. This study also indicates that the blow-out method is a useful technique for obtaining nasal secretions for the assessment of infiltrating cells.
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