Hypertension and Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

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  •   Jehanzeb Akram

  •   Hafiz Raza Rehman

  •   Fahad Muneer

  •   Sarmad Hassan

  •   Rida Fatima

  •   Tayyab Mumtaz Khan

  •   Mahak Khizar

  •   Sara Tahir

  •   Mahpara Asim

  •   Mubashra Shabbir

  •   Shanza Asif

  •   Madeeha Mumtaz

Abstract

Hypertension is a common health issue all over the world. It has been suggested that hypertension leads to diseases of vital organs like, heart, brain, and kidney. Although, hypertension is under the influence of many factors like age, gender, marital status, genetic, social class, educational status, diabetes, lifestyle, and tobacco and alcohol consumption, even so, obesity is considered as a very critical factor. Thus, our study was established with the objective to determine interrelation between hypertension and obesity. This study with cross-sectional design was accomplished among general and regional population of Pak Arab society, Lahore in about 2months from March 2021 to the end of April 2021. People were called up in our study via established criteria. Data was collected by self-designed proforma and WHO classification was applied to classify participants into four WHO classes of weight status. Data analysis was done by applying SPSS version 25. Diverse statistical tests like Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, and One-Way-ANOVA test. were used to evaluate study variables. This study shows overall high prevalence of both hypertension (45.1%) and obesity (30.70%) among study population. Mean values of both blood pressures systolic and diastolic were higher among men (systolic blood pressure = 142.34 mmHg with SD of ±18.03, diastolic blood pressure = 89.93 mmHg with SD of ±1.26), than women (systolic blood pressure = 136.64 mmHg with SD of ±19.95, diastolic blood pressure = 89.65 mmHg with SD of ±8.67) however, these differences were not significant statistically with p-values 0.75 and 0.851 respectively. BMI mean values were higher among women (25.95 with SD of ±3.67) than men (25.76 with SD of ±4.10)), and difference was insignificant statistically (p=0.779). Variation in mean BMI values across four weight statuses (For Underweight BMI mean value = 17.86 with SD of ±0.38, for normal weight BMI mean value=21.18 with SD of ±1.36, for overweight BMI mean value =25.48 with SD of ±1.10, for obese BMI mean value= 30.47 with SD of ±0.77) was significant(p=0.0003). Difference in BMI mean values was also significant between hypertensive (BMI=27.68 with SD of ±3.28) and normotensive people (BMI= 24.39 with SD of ±3.62) with p-value of 0.0001. Variations in mean values of both systolic (underweight=127.57mmHg with SD of ±10.67, normal weight=126.89mmHg with SD of ±9.63, over weight=135.52mmHg with SD of ±17.46, obese=152.6mmHg with SD of ±19.74) and diastolic blood (underweight= 81.71mmHg with SD of ±7.29, normal weight=83.21mmHg with SD of ±4.68, over weight=89.39 mmHg with SD of ±7.57 , obese = 95.40 mmHg with SD of ±9.75) pressures across four statuses were significant with p values 0.004 and 0.0001 respectively. Gender was associated with weight status significantly (p=0.040); however, gender was not associated with hypertension (p=0.072) Most importantly, obesity and hypertension were associated significantly(p=0.0003) In summary, our study shows high prevalence of hypertension and obesity among enrolled population. Hypertension incidence goes up with increase in the weight. Hypertension incidence was higher among men than women whereas, obesity was higher among women than men. Thus, we can by controlling obesity we would be able to manage hypertension.


Keywords: Hypertension, Obesity, Cross-sectional, Study, Association

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