Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects more than half people worldwide particularly in African countries such as Cameroon. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and predictors risk factors among patients undergoing gastro-duodenal fibroscopy at the Centre Medical, la Cathédrale of Yaoundé.
Methods: A facility-based descriptive cross-sectional study involving 147 patients was conducted from October 2015 to April 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic factors and predictors of H. pylori infection. Gastric biopsies specimens were collected from the antrum and corpus using an Olympus GIF – Q30 fully immersible gastroscope respectively. The biopsies were screened for the presence of H. pylori by targeting the glmM gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 20 with p-value<0.05 considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean age was 47.19 ±16.64 years and female were more represented with 88/147 (59.8%) versus (vs.) 59/147(40.1%) for male. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 50/147 (34.01%; 95% CI: 26.41% - 42.28%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22/59 (37.29%) in male vs. 28/88 (31.82%) in female and this prevalence increased with age and peaked among 30-50 years. Bivariate logistic regression analysis identified that, the regional group, particularly the Centre region (OR 2.55, p= 0.007) and West region (OR 2.67, p=0.005), the level of education (OR 1.18, p=0.001), source of income (OR 0.95, p=0.004), and alcohol consumption (OR 1.41, p=0.0001) were predictors risk factors of H. pylori infection.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Yaoundé. Factors such as regional group, level of education, source of income, and alcohol consumption predisposed the subjects to H. pylori infection.
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