Background: Side effect following vaccination usually ranges from mild to moderate and occasionally severe in a small proportion of people. Covid-19 vaccine is no exception as side effects have been reported which are mostly mild to moderate and transient. The chances of any of these side effect following vaccination differ according to the specific COVID-19 vaccine.
Objective: To determine the side effect profile of the Health workers that received the COVID-19 vaccination in the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Materials and Method: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. It was carried out between 15th and 30th April 2021 among 151 health workers that received COVID-19 vaccination in the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The data were collected with a predesigned questionnaire and were analysed using IBM SPSS 23.0 version.
Results: About 52.3% were female health workers, 49.0% were aged between 36–45 years. Side effects were reported in 9 of every 10 health workers who received the vaccine. Most side effects (53.0%) started on the day of vaccination. The most common side effect was pain at the injection site, and it was reported by 104 recipients of the vaccine (68.9%). Fever, headache, tiredness and chills were reported in 57.0%, 49.0%, 47.7% and 43.7%, respectively.
Conclusion: As with medications and other vaccines, COVID-19 vaccines have side effects. Protective immunity against COVID-19 is developed following vaccination. In the face of a still rapidly evolving situation, what seems obvious is that vaccination currently remains the best route to achieving herd immunity.
Allagoa DO, Oriji PC, Obagah L, Tekenah ES, Dambo N, Atemie G. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Covid-19 among pregnant women in a tertiary hospital in South-South, Nigeria. Int J Res Rep Gynaecol. 2020;3(3):35-41. Available from: https://www.journalijrrgy.com/index.php/IJRRGY/article/view/30115 Accessed May 15, 2021.
GAVI – the vaccine alliance. The COVID-19 vaccine race – weekly update. Available from: https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/covid-19-vaccine-race. Accessed May 15, 2021.
The times of Israel. In trial, AstraZeneca 100% effective against severe cases, no raised clot risk. Available from: https://www.timesofisrael.com/in-trial-astrazeneca-100-effective-against-severe-cases-no-raised-clot-risk/ Accessed May 15, 2021.
AstraZeneca. Update on the safety of COVID-19 Vaccine. Available from: https://www.astrazeneca.com/media-centre/press-releases/2021/update-on-the-safety-of-covid-19-vaccine-astrazeneca.html Published March 14, 2021. Accessed May 15, 2021.
Ramos ML. Risk of blood clots. Renal Patient Led Advisory Network - North West on Twitter. Available from: https://mobile.twitter.com/RPLANNW/status/1381607429432086528 Accessed May 15, 2021.
Global News. Risk of blood clots appears ‘even more rare’ on 2nd AstraZeneca dose: experts. Available from: https://globalnews.ca/news/7835443/astrazeneca-vaccine-blood-clot-second-dose/ Accessed May 15, 2021.
Allagoa DO, Oriji PC, Tekenah ES, Obagah L, Njoku C, Afolabi AS, Atemie G. Predictors of acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine among patients at a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2021;8(5):2165–2172.
Oriji PC, Allagoa DO, Obagah L, Tekenah ES, Ohaeri OS, Atemie G. Perception about Covid-19 vaccine among patients at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, South-South Nigeria. Int J Res Med Sci. 2021;9(5):1281–1287.
Shimabukuro T, Nair N. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. JAMA. 2021;325(8):780-781.
US Food and Drug Administration. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine Accessed May 15, 2021.
Dutch News. Women more likely to have side-effects with AstraZeneca than Pfizer. Available from: https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2021/03/women-more-likely-to-have-side-effects-with-astrazeneca-than-pfizer/ Accessed May 15, 2021.
GAVI – the vaccine alliance. Why vaccine side effects might be more common in people who've already had COVID-19. Available from: https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/why-vaccine-side-effects-might-be-more-common-people-whove-already-had-covid-19?fbclid=IwAR1uwVizRoJfKG0EtZt91s4fxlutwsLKVk0Ll4ZubMcY4iV2umAMDYdM8eI Accessed May 15, 2021.
World Health Organisation. Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS) review of latest evidence of rare adverse blood coagulation events with AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (Vaxzevria and Covishield). Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/16-04-2021-global-advisory-committee-on-vaccine-safety-(gacvs)-review-of-latest-evidence-of-rare-adverse-blood-coagulation-events-with-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccine-(vaxzevria-and-covishield). Accessed May 15, 2021.
Ungar L. The Gender Vaccine Gap: More Women Than Men Are Getting COVID Shots. Medscape. Apr 13, 2021. Available from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/949206. Accessed May 15, 2021.
Ruiz JB, Bell RA. Predictors of intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: results of a nationwide survey. Vaccine. 2021;39(7):1080-1086.
Olomofe CO, Soyemi KV, Udomah BF, Owolabi AO, Ajumuka EE, Igbokwe MC, et al. Predictors of uptake of a potential Covid-19 vaccine among Nigerian adults. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2021;12(1):442–445.
Lazarus JV, Ratzan SC, Palayew A, Gostin LO, Larson HJ, Rabin K, et al. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nature Med. 2020; 20: 1-4.
John RK, Claudia RS, Gabriel R, Sarah D, Ulrika S, Carole D. Predictors of Covid-19 vaccine acceptance across time and countries. medRxiv. 2020. 12.09.20246439; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.09.20246439.
Oriji PC, Allagoa DO, Wagio TJ, Obagah L, Tekenah ES, Ozori SE. Hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccination among health workers in a tertiary hospital in South-South, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases. 2021;7(1):21-31.
Allagoa DO, Oriji PC, Oguche OI, Ozori SE, Tekenah ES, Obagah L. Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among doctors in the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, South-South, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2021;20(5):60-67.
Alasia DD, Maduka O. Prevalence and Pattern of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers in Rivers State Nigeria. Occupational Dis Environ Med. 2021;9(1):20-32.
Olayanju O, Bamidele O, Edem F, Eseile B, Amoo A, Nwaokenye J, Udeh C, Oluwole G, Odok G, Awah N. SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity in Asymptomatic Frontline Health Workers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 2020;104(1):91-4.
Palosky C. Reasons Vary Why People Want to “Wait and See” Before Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine. KFF. Published: Feb 12, 2021. Available from: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/press-release/vaccine-monitor-reasons-vary-why-people-want-to-wait-and-see-before-get-a-covid-19-vaccine/. Accessed May 15, 2021.
Jagannathan M. Fewer people take a ‘wait and see’ approach to COVID-19 vaccine — here’s what changed their minds. MarketWatch. Last Updated: March 22, 2021. Available from: https://www.marketwatch.com/story/want-to-wait-and-see-before-you-get-the-covid-19-vaccine-read-this-first-11615500052. Accessed May 15, 2021.
The conversation. Why some people don’t experience vaccine side-effects, and why it’s not a problem. Available from: https://theconversation.com/why-some-people-dont-experience-vaccine-side-effects-and-why-its-not-a-problem-159282 Accessed May 9, 2021.
World Health Organisation. Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccines. WHO. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/side-effects-of-covid-19-vaccines. Accessed May 15, 2021.
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Possible Side Effects After Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/expect/after.html. Accessed May 15, 2021.
Our World in Data. Statistics and Research: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations. Available from: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations?country=~NGA. Accessed May 15, 2021.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.