Gender Difference in Obesity Prevalence Among General Population of Lahore, Pakistan


  •   Shahrukh Khan

  •   Hina Nauman

  •   Sania Saher

  •   Hafiza Arifa Imtiaz

  •   Amina Bibi

  •   Hajrah Sajid

  •   Tayyab Mumtaz Khan

  •   Madeeha Mumtaz

  •   Somia Bibi


Obesity has become a pandemic problem and it is infamous for causing both physical and psychological disorders. Even though obesity is influenced by many factors which include fast food, menopause, socioeconomic status, and genetics, however, gender has paramount importance as a factor that affects obesity when we do not consider other factors. Thus, our current research study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and influence of gender on it. Our current cross-sectional descriptive study was finished in almost 6 months from August 2020 to January 2021 among general population of Pak Aran Society Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 183 people were recruited in study in accordance to set criteria of exclusion and inclusion. Only those people whose age was from above 20 years to below 61 years, and who had no physical or mental illness and were willing to participate were enrolled in study. Data collection was done through one self-structured proforma and WHO Classification of Weight Status established on BMI. SPSS version 25 was applied to perform data analysis. Various statistical tests like Chi-square test, Independent Sample t-test, and One-Way ANOVA test were used to evaluate the study variables and their relationship. Overall, our current study indicates high prevalence (19.10%) of obesity among all participants, nevertheless, mean of BMI value was higher among women (26.26 SD of ±3.70) as compared to men (25.06 with SD of ±4.27) which shows that women had higher risk of development of obesity than men. However, relationship between obesity and gender was statistically insignificant (p=0.262). The difference of BMI mean value between women and men was significant statistically (p=0.046). Significance difference was also observed in BMI mean value of across four grades of weight status (p=0.0001). In summary, in general, prevalence of obesity is higher among women than among men which means female gender raises the obesity incidence among women.

Keywords: Prevalence, Gender, Difference, Obesity, General, Population, Lahore, Pakistan


Aslam M, Saeed A, Pasha GR, Altaf S. Gender differences of body mass index in adults of Pakistan: A case study of Multan city. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2010;9(2):162-6.

Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. Jama. 2001 Sep 12;286(10):1195-200.

Zohoori N, Mroz TA, Popkin B, Glinskaya E, Lokshin M, Mancini D, Kozyreva P, Kosolapov M, Swafford M. Monitoring the economic transition in the Russian Federation and its implications for the demographic crisis—the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. World Development. 1998 Nov 1;26(11):1977-93.

Peytremann-Bridevaux I, Faeh D, Santos-Eggimann B. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in rural and urban settings of 10 European countries. Preventive medicine. 2007 May 1;44(5):442-6.

El-Hazmi MA, Warsy AS. Prevalence of obesity in the Saudi population. Annals of Saudi medicine. 1997 May;17(3):302-6.

Ellulu M, Abed Y, Rahmat A, Ranneh Y, Ali F. Epidemiology of obesity in developing countries: challenges and prevention. Global Epidemic Obesity. 2014 Apr 1;2(1):2.

Kenchaiah S, Evans JC, Levy D, Wilson PW, Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, Kannel WB, Vasan RS. Obesity and the risk of heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002 Aug 1;347(5):305-13.

Aneja A, El-Atat F, McFarlane SI, Sowers JR. Hypertension and obesity. Recent progress in hormone research. 2004 Jan 1;59(1):169-205.

Bibi S, Khan TM, Zafar WM, Umer MJ, Iqbal UF, Maqsood MA, Khan S, Khalil S, Mumtaz M. Prevalence of Obesity and Impact of Menopause on It among Women of Rural Area of Punjab, Pakistan.

Hartz AJ, Rupley Jr DC, Kalkhoff RD, Rimm AA. Relationship of obesity to diabetes: influence of obesity level and body fat distribution. Preventive medicine. 1983 Mar 1;12(2):351-7.

Nestle M, Jacobson MF. Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach. Public health reports. 2000 Jan;115(1):12.

Ferris M, Hogan SL, Chin H, Shoham DA, Gipson DS, Gibson K, Yilmaz S, Falk RJ, Jennette JC. Obesity, albuminuria, and urinalysis findings in US young adults from the Add Health Wave III study. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2007 Nov 1;2(6):1207-14.

Garcia G, Sunil TS, Hinojosa P. The fast food and obesity link: consumption patterns and severity of obesity. Obesity surgery. 2012 May;22(5):810-8.

Martínez-González MÁ, Martinez JA, Hu FB, Gibney MJ, Kearney J. Physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and obesity in the European Union. International journal of obesity. 1999 Nov;23(11):1192-201.

Hebebrand J, Hinney A. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. 2009 Jan 1;18(1):83-94.

Bhurosy T, Jeewon R. Food habits, socioeconomic status and body mass index among premenopausal and post‐menopausal women in M auritius. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013 Jul;26:114-22.

Martin KS, Ferris AM. Food insecurity and gender are risk factors for obesity. Journal of nutrition education and behavior. 2007 Jan 1;39(1):31-6.

Garawi F, Devries K, Thorogood N, Uauy R. Global differences between women and men in the prevalence of obesity: is there an association with gender inequality? European journal of clinical nutrition. 2014 Oct;68(10):1101-6.

Khokhar KK, Kaur G, Sidhu S. Prevalence of obesity in working premenopausal and postmenopausal women of Jalandhar District, Punjab. Journal of Human Ecology. 2010 Jan 1;29(1):57-62.

de Paz IP, Hernando CA, Roldán JO. Obesity and menopause. Nutricion hospitalaria. 2006;21(6):633-7.

Garawi F, Devries K, Thorogood N, Uauy R. Global differences between women and men in the prevalence of obesity: is there an association with gender inequality? European journal of clinical nutrition. 2014 Oct;68(10):1101-6.

Lizcano F, Guzmán G. Estrogen deficiency and the origin of obesity during menopause. BioMed research international. 2014 Oct; 2014.

Lovejoy JC. The menopause and obesity. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2003 Jun 1;30(2):317-25.

Sharma S, Bakshi R, Tandon VR, Mahajan A. Postmenopausal obesity. Climacteric. 2007;10(1):19-24.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>