Frequency Occurrence and Percentage Distribution of Rh C, Rh c, Rh E and Rh e Blood Group Amongst Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Serekara Gideon Christian

  •   Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze

  •   Barizoge Monsi Badom

  •   Ibiere Allwell Pepple

  •   Christopher Aloy Simeon

Abstract

Background: The Rhesus (Rh) blood group is one of the most complex blood groups in humans comprising mainly of Rh D, C, c, E and e. However, only Rh D is routinely screened for in Nigeria despite the fact that other Rh antigens are clinically significant and can cause haemolytic disease of the newborn and delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions.


Aim: The aim was to determine the frequency distribution of Rh C, c, E and e blood groups among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.


Study Design: The study consisted of 147 apparently healthy pregnant women within the age range of 18-45 years, attending a selected Primary Healthcare Centre (Obio Cottage Hospital) in Port Harcourt. The study was carried out from January 20, 2020 to March 27, 2020. The presence of Rh C, c, E and e blood groups were investigated using Anti-C, c, E and e monoclonal antibody in the same order.


Results: Rh C, c, E and e were observed in 38.09%, 100%, 17.68% and 100% in the same order.


Conclusion: The study indicated dominance of Rh c and Rh e over Rh C and Rh E among the studied pregnant women. It is necessary to take into cognizance the fact that the presence of Rh C, c, E and e antigens may be the cause of some delayed transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. Therefore, routine antigen typing for Rh antigens may help in decreasing red blood cell allo-immunization and delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction during pregnancy.


Keywords: Rh C, Rh c, Rh E, Rh e, Rhesus Blood Group, Nigeria

References

Dean L. The Rh Blood Group. Blood Groups and Red cell Antigens. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 2005.

Avent ND, Reid ME. The Rh Blood Group System: A Review. Blood. 2000; 95:375 – 387.

Flegel AW. The Genetics of the Rhesus Blood Group System. Blood Transfusion. 2007; 5(2):50-57.

Wagner FF, Eicher NI, Jorgensen JR. DNB: A Partial D with anti-D Frequent in Central Europe. Blood. 2002; 100:2253–2256.

Simsek S, de Jong CA, Cuijpers HT. Sequence Analysis of cDNA Derived from Reticulocyte mRNAs Coding for Rh Polypeptides and Demonstration of of E/e and C/c Polymorphisms. Vox Sanguinis. 1994; 67:203–209.

Hartel-Schenk S. Agre P. Mammalian Red Cell Membrane Rh Polypeptides are Selectively Palmitoylated Subunits of a Macromolecular Complex. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1992; 267:5569–5574.

Ridgwell K, Spurr NK, Laguda B. Isolation of cDNA Clones for a 50 kDa Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane Associated with Rh (Rhesus) Blood Group Antigen Expression. Biochemistry Journal. 1992; 287:223–228.

Huang CH. The human Rh50 Glycoprotein Gene-Structural Organization and Associated Splicing Defect Resulting in Rh-null Disease. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1998; 273:2207–2213.

Cartron JP, Bailly P, Le Van Kim C. Insights into the Structure and Function of Membrane Polypeptides Carrying Blood Group Antigens. Vox Sanguinis. 1998; 74(Suppl 2):29–64.

Daniels GL. Human Blood Groups (2nd ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Science. 2002.

Chérif-Zahar B, Raynal V, Gane P. Candidate Gene Acting as a Suppressor of the RH Locus in Most Cases of Rh-deficiency. Nature Genetics. 1996; 12:168–173.

Eyers SA, Ridgwell K, Mawby WJ, Tanner MJ. Topology and Organization of Human Rh (Rhesus) Blood Group-Related Polypeptides. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994; 269:6417–6423.

Brecher ME. Technical Manual of Blood Banks (15th ed.). Bethesda, Maryland: American Association of Blood Banks Press. 2005.

Mollison PL, Engelfriet CP, Contreras M. Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine (10th ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Science. 1997. 169-177 p.

Roback JD, Raecombs M, Grossman DJ, Hillgr CD. AABB Technical manual (16th ed.). Bethesda, Maryland: American Association of Blood Banks Press. 2008.

Mais DD. Asep Quick Compordium of Clinical Pathology (2nd ed.). Chicago: American Society for Clinical Pathology Press. 2009.

Westhoff CM. The Rh Blood Group System in Review: A New Face for the Next Decade. Transfusion. 2004; 44:1663–1673.

Demographia. Demographia World Urban Areas (11th Ed.). Archived from the original on 5 August, 2011. Retrieved on 2nd January, 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Harcourt.

Demographia. Demographia world urban areas (11th Ed.). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved on 2nd January, 2021 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Harcourt

Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, 2nd edition, Part 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010.

Lorne Laboratories. Monoclonal Blood Grouping Reagent; Anti – C Monodonal, Document Reference Number: CEP1631, United Kingdom: Lorne Laboratories Ltd. 2018.

Lorne Laboratories. Monoclonal Blood Grouping Reagent; Anti – c Monodonal, Document Reference Number: CEP1632, United Kingdom: Lorne Laboratories Ltd. 2018.

Lorne Laboratories. Monoclonal Blood Grouping Reagent; Anti – E Monodonal, Document Reference Number: CEP1633, United Kingdom: Lorne Laboratories Ltd. 2018.

Lorne Laboratories. Monodonal Blood Grouping Reagent; Anti – e Monodonal, Document Reference Number: CEP1634, United Kingdom: Lorne Laboratories Ltd. 2018.

Jeremiah ZA, Buseri FI. Rh Antigen and Phenotype Frequencies and Probable Genotypes for the Four Main Ethnic Groups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Immunohematology. 2003; 19(3):86-88.

Jeremiah ZA, Odumody C. Rh Antigens and Phenotype Frequencies of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo Ethnic Nationalities in Calabar, Nigeria. Immunohematology. 2005; 21(1):21-24.

Jeremiah ZA, Biribo AA, Adias TC, Uko EK. Uncommon Rh Phenotypes in a Cross Section of Nigerian Antenatal Women: Implications for Molecular Genotyping of Blood Groups. Journal of Blood Disorders and Transfusion. 2012; 10:001.

Adewoyin AS, Lee GM, Adeyemo TA, Awodu OA. Rh and Kell Blood Group Antigen Prevalence in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort in Nigeria: Implications for Local Transfusion Service. Immunohematology. 2018; 34(2):61-65.

Erhabor O, Okwesili A, Aliyu BS, Onuigwe F, Buhari H, Bagudo A, Ibrahim K, Isah IZ, Mainasara Y, Uko E. K, Aghedo F, Ikhuenbor D, Hassan M, Ahmed Y. Prevalence of Rhesus C and E Phenotype Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Journal of Gynecology and Neonatal Biology. 2016; 2(1):13-16.

Kahar MA, Patel RD. Phenotype Frequencies of Blood Group Systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis and Lutheran) in Blood Donors of South Gujarat, India. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. 2014; 8(1): 51-55.

Bogui LS, Dembele B, Sekongo Y, Abisse S, Konaté S, Sombo M. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems Among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa. Journal of Blood Transfusion 2014; (22):167-183.

Reid ME, Lomas F. The Blood Group Antigen Facts Book (2nd ed.). New York: Elsevier Academic Press. 2004.

Christian SG, Eze EM, Ezimah ACU, Buseri FI. Rhesus E, Rhesus D and ABO Blood Groups Distribution among Indigenes of Ogoni Ethnic Group of Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology. 2020; 3(1):1-7.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Christian, S. G., Eze, E. M., Badom, B. M., Pepple, I. A., & Simeon, C. A. (2021). Frequency Occurrence and Percentage Distribution of Rh C, Rh c, Rh E and Rh e Blood Group Amongst Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 3(3), 50-54. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.3.808