Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), although accounting for only 0.5-1% of all strokes, remains a potentially fatal neurological emergency, which must be promptly diagnosed and treated. Consisting of two parts, this review aims to highlight the most important data from recent years regarding diagnosis and treatment of CVT, illustrating both the current modern therapeutic approach and the future research directions in the field. Regarding the clinical diagnosis, the neurologist may sometimes have difficulties in recognizing this pathology, given the diverse clinical picture of the acute stage of CVT that can mimic various neurological disorders. In addition, although most risk factors (procoagulation status, infections, trauma, systemic diseases) are known and can be easily detected, in a significant percentage of cases the etiology remains uncertain. For paraclinical diagnosis, among the imaging investigations essential to support the diagnosis, CT angiography and MRI venography are reliable alternatives to digital subtraction angiography which represent the gold standard nowadays. In terms of treatment, international guidelines provide general directions for anticoagulation, with low molecular weight heparin being highly recommended. Regarding invasive treatment methods (thrombolysis, thrombectomy) that could be used in severe cases where anticoagulation has been shown to be insufficient, as well as symptomatic therapy, the evidence is often insufficient, new randomized clinical trials with large cohorts of patients being required.
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