Trends in Lassa Fever Outbreak in Plateau State Nigeria

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Elizabeth O. Okoh

  •   Simji S. Gomerep

  •   Esther A. Envuladu

  •   Yetunde O. Tagurum

  •   Adokole F. Okoh

  •   Amina Mohammed

  •   Ayuba I. Zoakah

Abstract

Background: Since the first case of Lassa fever was reported in Plateau State, Nigeria in 1969, several outbreaks have occurred, and many more cases are being reported every year. This study aimed to describe the trends in Lassa fever outbreak in Plateau State, Nigeria from 2015 to the first half of 2019.


Methodology: A time series study was carried out employing a retrospective analysis of records of Lassa fever cases (from January 2015 – June 2019) obtained from Plateau State Epidemiological Unit. Cases were identified using the WHO case definition. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence, case positivity and case fatality rates were calculated for each year to study the trends. Data were retrieved and analyzed using Microsoft Excel.


Results: Cases were mainly of the younger age group and were more concentrated in the Northern senatorial zone. Despite the increasing trend in incident cases from 5 in 2015 to 126 in 2019, and age-adjusted cumulative incidence from 1 case per 10,000 population in 2015 to 348 per 10,000 population in 2019, case fatality rate showed a downward trend from 29.6% in 2016 to 12.9% in 2019. Case positivity rates varied from 27.3% to 34.1% to 19.4% and back to 27.3% from 2016 to 2019, and the cumulative Case Positivity Rate was 25.7%.


Conclusion: The incidence of Lassa fever in Plateau State showed an increasing trend while that of mortality was on a downward trend. More efforts should be put in place by the State government and other stakeholders to reduce the burden of this disease.


Keywords: Lassa fever, trends, outbreak, Plateau state

References

Fatiregun AA and Isere EE. Epidemic preparedness and management: A guide on Lassa fever outbreak preparedness plan. Nigerian Medical Journal. 2017;58(1):1-6.

Mofolorunsho KC. Outbreak of lassa fever in Nigeria: measures for prevention and control. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2016;23:210.

Olayiwola JO and Bakarey AS. Epidemiological trends of Lassa fever outbreaks and insights for future control in Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health. 2017;24(4):1-14.

Ehichioya DM HM, Olschager S, Becker BZ, OnyebuchiCO, Coker J, et al,. Lassa fever Nigeria, 2005-2008. EID Journal. 2009;16(6).

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Lassa fever in Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Germany and USA. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016: p 2-19.

World Health Organization. Lassa Fever - Nigeria. 2017 [cited 2018 24 Apr]. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/28-june-2017-lassa-fever-nigeria/en/.

Ehichioya DU, Hass M, Olschlager S, BeckerZiaja B, Chukwu CO, Coker J, et al. Lassa Fever, Nigeria, 2005–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(6):1040-1.

Ogbua O, Ajuluchukwub E, Unekec CJ. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview. J Vect Borne Dis. 2007;44:1-11.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Prevalence and Incidence of Lassa Virus Infection in Southern Mali. 2019 [cited 2015 Aug 07]. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03783143.

Saka JM, Gubio AB, Kerecvel YS, Saka AO, Oyemakinde A. Lassa fever epidemic in Nigeria - Outbreak investigation, risk factors and empirical analysis from 2012 to 2016. Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing. 2017;3(2):1-6.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). Weekly Epidemiological Report - Epi week 52. 2017 [cited 2018 22 Apr]. Available from: http://www.ncdc.gov.ng/reports/101/2017-december-week-52.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). An update of Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria. 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 20]. Available from: https://ncdc.gov.ng/diseases/sitreps/?cat=5&name=An%20update%20of%20Lassa%20fever%20outbreak%20in%20Nigeria.

Tambo E, Adetunde OT, Olalubi OA. Re-emerging Lassa fever outbreaks in Nigeria: Re-enforcing “One Health” community surveillance and emergency response practice. Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2018;7(37):1 -11.

World Health Organization. Weekly bulletin on outbreaks and other emergencies. 2017 [cited 2018 24 Apr]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/258688/OEW31-2970482017.pdf;jsessionid=5729B87D8C4B44E371AA3AE9D8A51FD4?sequence=1.

World Health Organization. Lassa Fever - Nigeria. 2018 [cited 2018 24 Apr]. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/23-march-2018-lassa-fever-nigeria/en/.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). 2018 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria: Epi week 15. 2018 [cited 2018 23 Apr]. Available from: http://www.ncdc.gov.ng/themes/common/files/sitreps/bb3b8f16adff5ffc041181d4be1e056f.pdf.

NCDC. Lassa Fever. 2019 [cited 2019 Aug 08]. Available from: https://ncdc.gov.ng/diseases/factsheet/47#symptoms.

Chollom SC, Osawe S, Lar P, Egah DZ, Mamman I, Abimiku A. Analysis of reported cases of Lassa Fever in Plateau State and the need for strategic action plan. International Journal of Tropical Disease and Health. 2016;13(2):1-7.

Shehu NY , Gomerep SS, Isa SE, Iraoyah KO, Mafuka J, Bitrus N, et al. Lassa Fever 2016 outbreak in Plateau State, Nigeria—The changing epidemiology and clinical presentation. Front Public Health. 2018;6:232. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00232.

Gwomson D, Sodipo OY, Lar LA. Lassa fever: A recurring decimal in Plateau state, Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical Research 2018;9(5):197-201.

Akpede GO, Asogun DA, Okogbenin SA, Dawodu SO, Momoh MO, Dongo AE, et al. Caseload and Case Fatality of Lassa Fever in Nigeria, 2001–2018: A Specialist Center's Experience and Its Implications. Frontiers in Public Health. 2019;7(170):1-17.

Kafetzopoulou LE, Pullan ST, Lemey P, Suchard MA, Ehichioya DU, Pahlmann M, et al. Metagenomic sequencing at the epicenter of the Nigeria 2018 Lassa fever outbreak. Science. 2019;363:74-7.

Siddle KJ, Eromon P, Barnes KG, Mehta S, Oguzie JU, Odia I, et al. Genomic analysis of Lassa virus during an increase in cases in Nigeria in 2018. . N Engl J Med. 2018;379:1745–53.

Hurtado C. Lassa fever in Nigeria. 2018. [cited 2019 31 Oct]. Available from: https://www.outbreakobservatory.org/outbreakthursday-1/2/15/2018/lassa-fever-in-nigeria.

Uzoma IR, Dan-Nwafor C, Ipadeola O, Rimamdeyati Y, Iniobong A, Okoro B, et al. Increasing trend of Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria: The more you look, the more you see. International Journal of infectious Diseases. 2021;101(51):336–83.

Dahmanea A, Van Griensvenb J, Van Herpc M, Van den Bergha R, Nzomukundac Y, Priorc J, et al. Constraints in the diagnosis and treatment of Lassa Fever and the effect on mortality in hospitalized children and women with obstetric conditions in a rural district hospital in Sierra Leone. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014;108:126-32.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). 2018 Lassa fever outbreak situation report: Epi week 52 20188 [cited 2019 22 Jul]. Available from: https://ncdc.gov.ng/.

Dan-Nwafor CC, Furuse Y, Ilori EA, Ipadeola O, Akabike KO, Ahumibe A, et al. Measures to control protracted large Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria, 1 January to 28 April 2019. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin. 2019;24(20):e1900272.

NCDC. 2019 Lassa Fever outbreak situation report. 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 03]. Available from: www.ncdc.gov.ng.

Richmond JK and Baglole DJ. Lassa fever: epidemiology, clinical features, and social consequences. British Medical Journal. 2003;327(7426):1271–5.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). Weekly Epidemiological Report: Week 52. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 04]. Available from: https://www.ncdc.gov.ng/reports/101/2017-december-week-52.

NCDC. 2018 LASSA FEVER OUTBREAK SITUATION REPORT 2019 [cited 2019 Mar 09]. Available from: www.ndcd.gov.ng.

Worldometers. Nigeria population 2019 [cited 2019 Oct 19]. Available from: www.worldometers.info.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). 2018 Lassa fever outbreak situation report: Epi week 52 20188 [cited 2019 22 Jul]. Available from: https://ncdc.gov.ng/.

National Institute of Health (NIH). NIAID Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens. 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 07]. Available from: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/research/emerging-infectious-diseases-pathogens.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Okoh, E. O., Gomerep, S. S., Envuladu, E. A., Tagurum, Y. O., Okoh, A. F., Mohammed, A., & Zoakah, A. I. (2021). Trends in Lassa Fever Outbreak in Plateau State Nigeria. European Journal of Medical and Health Science, 3(2), 60-67. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.2.757