The hepatorenal syndrome is one of various potential causes of acute kidney injury in patients with decompensated liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome is diagnosed based on reducing kidney function without any evidence of intrinsic kidney disease, including proteinuria, hematuria, or abnormal kidney ultrasonography. Clinically, hepatorenal syndrome is divided into two types named type 1 and type 2. The most favorable therapy for HRS cases is liver transplantation; however, only a few undergo this procedure due to the high mortality. Other modalities for hepatorenal syndrome therapy are pharmacology and non-pharmacology approaches. The purpose of management HRS is to optimize and stabilize the patient until an organ transplant available. This review aims to discuss the underlying pathophysiology and demonstrate the diagnostic approach of hepatorenal syndrome to determine the most appropriate therapeutic measures in clinical practice. The clinicians must be aware of management principles of hepatorenal syndrome to improve the quality of care for patients and optimize the clinical conditions.
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