Correlates of Actual and Self-Reported Knowledge and Skills, Attitudes, and Barriers Mitigating Against the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Physiotherapy

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  •   Joseph Balogun

  •   Chidozie E. Mbada

  •   Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi

  •   Faith A. Awoleye

  •   David B. Olakorede

  •   Adetutu Balogun

Abstract

Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) has in the last decade gained global prominence in healthcare professions including physiotherapy. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to determine physiotherapists' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, skills, and resources, and barriers mitigating against the implementation of EBP in physical therapy, but there is limited information on the correlation among actual (competence) and self-report (perceived) knowledge and skills about EBP.


Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the premise of these associations among 233 Nigerian physiotherapists who completed a previously validated 55-item questionnaire that assessed demographic data, actual and self-report knowledge, skills and resources, attitudes, and barriers about EBP.


Result: We found no significant relationship between actual knowledge of EBP and clinical experience (r=.086, p>.05), age (r=.048, p>.05), academic degree (r=.108, p >.05), self-reported knowledge (r=.097, p>.05), and self-reported skills about EBP (r=.095, p>.05). Demographic variables (age, years of clinical experience, and academic degrees) and psychosocial factors (self-reported knowledge, skills and resources, attitudes, and barriers about EBP) are not a significant predictor of actual knowledge of EBP.


Conclusion: The physiotherapists perceived that they are competent about EBP but in reality, they are not, and may fail to seek educational resources that will improve their understanding and improve their skills about EBP.


Keywords: Evidence-based practice, Competence, Self-report, Physiotherapist

References

Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JM, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. British Medical Journal, 1996; 312: 71-72 https://www.physio-pedia.com/Evidence_Based_Practice_(EBP)[1] Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JM, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. British Medical Journal, 1996; 312: 71-72 https://www.physio-pedia.com/Evidence_Based_Practice_(EBP).

Jette DU., K. Bacon, C. Batty et al. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 2003; 83(9): 786–805.

Thyer BA. What is evidence-based practice? Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 2004; 4(2):167–176.

Iles R, Davidson M. Evidence-based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice. Physiother Res Int, 2006; 11: 93–103 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pri.328.

Grimmer-Somers K, Lekkas P, Nyland L, Young A, Kumar S. Perspectives on research evidence and clinical practice: a survey of Australian physical therapists. Physiother Res Int 2007;12:147–61.

Akinbo S, Odebiyi D, Okunola T, Aderoba O. Evidence-based practice: knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapists in Nigeria. Internet J Med Informatics, 2008; 4: 1-8.

Fruth SJ, Van Veld RD, Despos CA, Martin RD, Hecker A, Sincroft EE. The influence of topic-specific, research-based presentation on physical therapists’ beliefs and practices regarding evidence-based practice Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 2010; 26: 537–557.

Da Silva TM, Costa C, Garcia AN, Costa LO. What do physical therapists think about evidence-based practice? A systematic review. Man Ther. 2014; 20(3):388-401. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2014.10.009.

Ramírez-Vélez R, Correa-Bautista JE, Muñoz-Rodríguez DI, Ramírez L, González-Ruíz K, Domínguez-Sánchez MA, Durán-Palomino D, Girabent-Farrés M, Eugenia Flórez López M, Bagur-Calafat MC. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists. Colomb Med (Cali), 2015; 46(1): 33–40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437285/.

Silva TM, Costa L, Costa LO. Evidence-Based Practice: a survey regarding behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from São Paulo state. Braz J Phys Ther 2015; 19:294–303.

Condon C, McGrane N, Mockler D, Stokes E. Ability of physical therapists to undertake evidence-based practice steps: a scoping review. Physiotherapy, 2016; 102(1):10-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26404896/.

Yahui HC. Knowledge, attitudes, and barriers towards evidence-based practice among physiotherapists in Malaysia. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, 2017; 37, 10-18: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1013702516300525?via%3Dihub.

Alshehri MA, Alalawi A, Alhasan H, Stokes E. Physiotherapists’ behaviour, attitudes, awareness, knowledge and barriers concerning evidence-based practice implementation in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Int J Evid Based Healthcare, 2017; 15(3): 127–141:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5592985/.

Bacon DR. Reporting actual and perceived student learning in education research. Journal of Marketing Education, 2016; 38(1) 3–6.

Sitzmann T, Ely K, Brown K, Bauer K. Self-assessment of knowledge: A cognitive learning or affective measure? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2010; 9(2), 169-191.

Drass, J.A., Mulr-Nash, J., Boykin, P.C., Turek, J.M., & Baker, K.L. Perceived and actual level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus among nurses. Diabetes Care, 1989; 12 (5), 351-56.

Kohn, MA, Senyak J. Sample size calculators [website]. UCSF CTSI. 19 August 2020. https://sample-size.net/correlation-sample-size/.

Balogun JA, Oyeyemi AY, Mbada CE, Awoleye FA, Olakorede DB, Balogun AO. Evidence-based practice knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors: Assessing the readability, stability, and internal consistency of a psychometric instrument. Proceedings of the Nigerian Academy of Science (In press).

Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 1977; 33, 159–174.

Kupris, Gayla M. Perceived and actual level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus among nurses. master’s Theses, 1991; 111:http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/theses/111.

Nelson TD, Steele RG. Predictors of practitioner self-reported use of evidence-based practices: practitioner training, clinical setting, and attitudes toward research. Adm Policy Ment Health, 2007; 34(4):319-30.

Stephens-Davidowitz, S. Everybody lies: Big data, new data, and what the Internet can tell us about who we really are. 2017. New York, NY: Dey Street Books.

Cook, TD, Campbell, DT. Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979.

Loftus, E. The fiction of memory. Paper presented at the Western Psychological Association Convention. 2016. Long Beach, CA. https://westernpsych.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/WPA-Program-2016-4Web.pdf. https://webfiles.uci.edu/eloftus/Loftus_Illusions_Goldsmiths_SkepInq2016.pdf?uniq=-huvh2c.

Chan, D. So why ask me? Are self-report data really that bad? In Charles E. Lance and Robert J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences, 2009; 309-335. New York, NY: Routledge.

Khoury M, James L, Erikson J. On the use of affected controls to address recall bias in case-control studies of birth defects. Teratology, 1994; 49, 273-281.

Jette DU., K. Bacon, C. Batty et al. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 2003; 83(9): 786–805.

Thyer BA. What is evidence-based practice? Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 2004; 4(2):167–176.

Iles R, Davidson M. Evidence-based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice. Physiother Res Int, 2006; 11: 93–103 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pri.328

Grimmer-Somers K, Lekkas P, Nyland L, Young A, Kumar S. Perspectives on research evidence and clinical practice: a survey of Australian physical therapists. Physiother Res Int 2007;12:147–61.

Akinbo S, Odebiyi D, Okunola T, Aderoba O. Evidence-based practice: knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapists in Nigeria. Internet J Med Informatics, 2008; 4: 1-8.

Fruth SJ, Van Veld RD, Despos CA, Martin RD, Hecker A, Sincroft EE. The influence of topic-specific, research-based presentation on physical therapists’ beliefs and practices regarding evidence-based practice Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 2010; 26: 537–557.

Da Silva TM, Costa C, Garcia AN, Costa LO. What do physical therapists think about evidence-based practice? A systematic review. Man Ther. 2014; 20(3):388-401. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2014.10.009.

Ramírez-Vélez R, Correa-Bautista JE, Muñoz-Rodríguez DI, Ramírez L, González-Ruíz K, Domínguez-Sánchez MA, Durán-Palomino D, Girabent-Farrés M, Eugenia Flórez López M, Bagur-Calafat MC. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists. Colomb Med (Cali), 2015; 46(1): 33–40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437285/

Silva TM, Costa L, Costa LO. Evidence-Based Practice: a survey regarding behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from São Paulo state. Braz J Phys Ther 2015; 19:294–303.

Condon C, McGrane N, Mockler D, Stokes E. Ability of physical therapists to undertake evidence-based practice steps: a scoping review. Physiotherapy, 2016; 102(1):10-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26404896/

Yahui HC. Knowledge, attitudes, and barriers towards evidence-based practice among physiotherapists in Malaysia. Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, 2017; 37, 10-18: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1013702516300525?via%3Dihub

Alshehri MA, Alalawi A, Alhasan H, Stokes E. Physiotherapists’ behaviour, attitudes, awareness, knowledge and barriers concerning evidence-based practice implementation in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. Int J Evid Based Healthcare, 2017; 15(3): 127–141:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5592985/

Bacon DR. Reporting actual and perceived student learning in education research. Journal of Marketing Education, 2016; 38(1) 3–6

Sitzmann T, Ely K, Brown K, Bauer K. Self-assessment of knowledge: A cognitive learning or affective measure? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2010; 9(2), 169-191.

Drass, J.A., Mulr-Nash, J. , Boykin, P.C., Turek, J.M., & Baker, K.L. Perceived and actual level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus among nurses. Diabetes Care, 1989; 12 (5), 351-56.

Kohn, MA, Senyak J. Sample size calculators [website]. UCSF CTSI. 19 August 2020. https://sample-size.net/correlation-sample-size/

Balogun JA, Oyeyemi AY, Mbada CE, Awoleye FA, Olakorede DB, Balogun AO. Evidence-based practice knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors: Assessing the readability, stability, and internal consistency of a psychometric instrument. Proceedings of the Nigerian Academy of Science (In press).

Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 1977; 33, 159–174.

Kupris, Gayla M. Perceived and actual level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus among nurses. master’s Theses, 1991; 111:http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/theses/111

Nelson TD, Steele RG. Predictors of practitioner self-reported use of evidence-based practices: practitioner training, clinical setting, and attitudes toward research. Adm Policy Ment Health, 2007; 34(4):319-30.

Stephens-Davidowitz, S. Everybody lies: Big data, new data, and what the Internet can tell us about who we really are. 2017. New York, NY: Dey Street Books.

Cook, TD, Campbell, DT. Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1979.

Loftus, E. The fiction of memory. Paper presented at the Western Psychological Association Convention. 2016. Long Beach, CA.https://westernpsych.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/WPA-Program-2016-4Web.pdfhttps://webfiles.uci.edu/eloftus/Loftus_Illusions_Goldsmiths_SkepInq2016.pdf?uniq=-huvh2c

Chan, D. So why ask me? Are self-report data really that bad? In Charles E. Lance and Robert J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences, 2009; 309-335. New York, NY: Routledge.

Khoury M, James L, Erikson J. On the use of affected controls to address recall bias in case-control studies of birth defects. Teratology, 1994; 49, 273-281.

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How to Cite
Balogun, J., Mbada, C. E., Oyeyemi, A. Y., Awoleye, F. A., Olakorede, D. B., & Balogun, A. (2021). Correlates of Actual and Self-Reported Knowledge and Skills, Attitudes, and Barriers Mitigating Against the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Physiotherapy. European Journal of Medical and Health Science, 3(2), 7-11. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.2.704