To determine the prevalence, etiology and antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial agents of wound infection in rural community dwellers in the Northern region of Ghana. From August 2017 to July 2018, patients who reported with infected wound to four (4) primary health facilities were recruited after obtaining written informed consent. Wound swabs were taken from 93 participants; 59(63.4%) males and 34(36.6%) females. Wounds were aseptically swabbed and cultured. Antibiotic susceptibility tests (AST) were performed on all isolates using agar disc diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI 2013 guidelines. A total of 165 bacteria isolates were obtained from 93 wound swabs. The most predominant bacteria species were Staphylococcus aureus 38(23.0%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27(19.7%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae 15(9.1%). Many of the isolates were from burns 61(37.0%) and diabetic wounds 33 (20.0%), with few from motor traffic wounds 5(3.0%). Most of the isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins. Notably, all (100%) of the Acinetobacter and Providencia species and 75% of Proteus species were resistant to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. High resistance to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone was also observed in K. pneumoniae (53.3% and 53.3%) and E. coli (60.0% and 50.0%) respectively. Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes to penicillin and erythromycin was 60% and 70% respectively while 10.5 % of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin resistant (MSRA). This study revealed a wide range of bacterial agents are associated with wound infection and are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Additionally, the study suggests relatively high antibiotic resistance is associated with community acquired infection of wounds.
H. H. Kumburu, T. Sonda, B.T. Mmbaga, M. Alifrangis, O. Lund, G. Kibiki, and F.M. Aarestrup, "Patterns of infections, aetiological agents and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania," Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2017.Vol. 22, no.4, pp. 454-464.
C.K. Sen, G.M. Gordillo, S. Roy, R. Kirsner, L. Lambert, T.K. Hunt, M.T. Longaker, "Human skin wounds: a major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy," Wound repair and regeneration, 2009.Vol. 17, no.6, pp. 763-771.
S.J. Leopold, F. van Leth, H. Tarekegn, and C. Schultsz, "Antimicrobial drug resistance among clinically relevant bacterial isolates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review," Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2014.Vol. 69, no.9, pp. 2337-2353.
T. Velnar, T. Bailey, and V. Smrkolj, "The wound healing process: an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms," Journal of International Medical Research, 2009.Vol. 37, no.5, pp. 1528-1542.
S. Hassan, G. Reynolds, J. Clarkson, and P. Brooks, "Challenging the dogma: relationship between time to healing and formation of hypertrophic scars after burn injuries," Journal of Burn Care & Research, 2014.Vol. 35, no.2, pp. e118-e124.
L.J. Bessa, P. Fazii, M. Di Giulio, and L. Cellini, "Bacterial isolates from infected wounds and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern: some remarks about wound infection," International wound journal, 2015.Vol. 12, no.1, pp. 47-52.
U. Groß, S.K. Amuzu, R. De Ciman, I. Kassimova, L. Groß, W. Rabsch, O. Zimmermann, "Bacteremia and antimicrobial drug resistance over time, Ghana," Emerging infectious diseases, 2011.Vol. 17, no.10, pp. 1879.
A. Han, J.M. Zenilman, J.H. Melendez, M.E. Shirtliff, A. Agostinho, G. James, A.H. Rickard, "The importance of a multifaceted approach to characterizing the microbial flora of chronic wounds," Wound Repair and Regeneration, 2011.Vol. 19, no.5, pp. 532-541.
N.S. Levine, R.B. Lindberg, A.D. Mason Jr, and B.A.J.T.J.o.t. Pruitt Jr, "The quantitative swab culture and smear: A quick, simple method for determining the number of viable aerobic bacteria on open wounds," 1976.Vol. 16, no.2, pp. 89-94.
CLSI, "Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: 25th informational supplement," CLSI document M100-S25. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2015.
C.J. Fernandes, L.A. Fernandes, and P. Collignon, "Cefoxitin resistance as asurrogate marker for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus," Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2005, no.55, pp. 506-510.
E. Nwankwo and S. Edino, "Seasonal variation and risk factors associated with surgical site infection rate in Kano, Nigeria," Turkish journal of medical sciences, 2014.Vol. 44, no.4, pp. 674-680.
C. Ntirenganya, O. Manzi, C.M. Muvunyi, and O. Ogbuagu, "High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial isolates in a tertiary healthcare facility in Rwanda," The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 2015.Vol. 92, no.4, pp. 865-870.
J. Manyahi, M.I. Matee, M. Majigo, S. Moyo, S.E. Mshana, and E.F. Lyamuya, "Predominance of multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens causing surgical site infections in Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania," BMC research notes, 2014.Vol. 7, no.1, pp. 500.
K. Gjødsbøl, J.J. Christensen, T. Karlsmark, B. Jørgensen, B.M. Klein, and K.A. Krogfelt, "Multiple bacterial species reside in chronic wounds: a longitudinal study," International wound journal, 2006.Vol. 3, no.3, pp. 225-231.
J. Dissemond, "Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Diagnostic, clinical relevance and therapy," JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 2009.Vol. 7, no.6, pp. 544-553.
A. Schmidtchen, E. Holst, H. Tapper, and L. Björck, "Elastase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa degrade plasma proteins and extracellular products of human skin and fibroblasts, and inhibit fibroblast growth," Microbial pathogenesis, 2003.Vol. 34, no.1, pp. 47-55.
O. Källman, C. Lundberg, B. Wretlind, and Å. Örtqvist, "Gram-negative bacteria from patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe," Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, 2006.Vol. 38, no.6-7, pp. 448-450.
K. Pondei, B.G. Fente, and O. Oladapo, "Current microbial isolates from wound swabs, their culture and sensitivity pattern at the Niger delta university teaching hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria," Tropical medicine and health, 2013.Vol. 41, no.2, pp. 49-53.
Y. Abraham and B.L. Wamisho, "Microbial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from open fracture wounds presenting to the err of black-lion hospital, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia," African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2009.Vol. 3, no.12, pp. 939-951.
S.E. Mshana, E. Kamugisha, M. Mirambo, T. Chakraborty, and E.F. Lyamuya, "Prevalence of multiresistant gram-negative organisms in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania," BMC research notes, 2009.Vol. 2, no.1, pp. 49.
A. Qader and J. Muhamad, "Nosocomial infection in sulaimani burn hospital, IRAQ," Annals of burns and fire disasters, 2010.Vol. 23, no.4, pp. 177.
J.L.S. de Macedo and J.B. Santos, "Nosocomial infections in a Brazilian burn unit," Burns, 2006.Vol. 32, no.4, pp. 477-481.
Y. Bayram, M. Parlak, C. Aypak, and I.r. Bayram, "Three-year review of bacteriological profile and antibiogram of burn wound isolates in Van, Turkey," International journal of medical sciences, 2013.Vol. 10, no.1, pp. 19.
H. Chim, B.H. Tan, and C. Song, "Five-year review of infections in a burn intensive care unit: high incidence of Acinetobacter baumannii
M. Taherikalani, "Increased of resistant to antibiotics among bacteria caused burn wounds," Revista de Epidemiologia e Controle de Infecção, 2013.Vol. 3, no.2, pp. 38-39.
R.E. Mengesha, B.G.-S. Kasa, M. Saravanan, D.F. Berhe, and A.G. Wasihun, "Aerobic bacteria in post-surgical wound infections and pattern of their antimicrobial susceptibility in Ayder Teaching and Referral Hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia," BMC research notes, 2014.Vol. 7, no.1, pp. 575.
H. Janssen, I. Janssen, P. Cooper, C. Kainyah, T. Pellio, M. Quintel, M.H. Schulze, "Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Infected Wounds, Ghana, 2014," Emerging infectious diseases, 2018.Vol. 24, no.5, pp. 916.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.