Validity of Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory


  •   Zack Z. Cernovsky

  •   Milad Fattahi

  •   Larry C. Litman

  •   Silvia Tenenbaum

  •   Beta Leung

  •   Vitalina Nosonova

  •   Crystal Zhao

  •   Manfred Dreer


Background: Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory (AAI) is a 23 item questionnaire which provides a quantitative measure of vehicular anxiety (amaxophobia), common in survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The present study examines criterion and convergent validity of the AAI.

Method: De-identified data from a sample of 50 patients (mean age=39.1, SD=12.1; 17 men, 33 women) injured in high impact MVAs included the scores on Steiner’s AAI, as well as the pain ratings on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), scores on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Subjective Neuropsychological Symptoms Scale (SNPSS), Whetstone Vehicle Anxiety Questionnaire, and on Driving Anxiety Questionnaire (DAQ). The patients’ scores were compared to de-identified AAI data of 22 normal controls (mean age=45.9, SD=21.3; 10 men, 12 women).

Results: Mean score of the patients on Steiner’s AAI (mean=15.0, SD=2.5) was significantly higher than the one of normal controls (mean=3.2, SD=3.8) in a t-test (t=15.6, df=70, p<.001). The underlying correlation is very high (r=.88): this indicates an excellent criterion validity. Satisfactory convergent validity is suggested by significant correlations (p<.001) of Steiner’s AAI scores to the Whetstone Vehicle Anxiety Questionnaire (r=.58) and Driving Anxiety Questionnaire (r=.52). The AAI correlated at p<.001 with post-accident neuropsychological impairments as measured by Rivermead (r=.89) and SNPSS (r=.72). Internal consistency of the AAI is satisfactory (Cronbach alpha=.95).

Discussion and Conclusion: The results indicate satisfactory criterion and convergent validity of the Automobile Anxiety Inventory.

Keywords: Driving Anxiety, Amaxophobia, Convergent Validity, Criterion Validity


Whetstone JP, Cernovsky Z, Tenenbaum S, Poggi G, Sidhu A, Istasy M, Dreer M. Validation of James Whetstone’s Measure of Amaxophobia. Archives of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2020;3(1):23-33.

Weathers FW, Litz BT, Keane TM, Palmieri PA, Marx BP, Schnurr PP. The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The National Center for PTSD, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, 2013.

Eyres S, Carey A, Gilworth G, Neumann V, Tennant A. Construct validity and reliability of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 19:878-87.

Cernovsky ZZ, Istasy PVF, Hernández-Aguilar ME, Mateos-Moreno A, Bureau Y, Chiu S. Quantifying Post-Accident Neurological Symptoms Other than Concussion. Archives of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2019; 2(1):50-54.

Morin CM, Belleville G, Bélanger L, Ivers H. The insomnia severity index: psychometric indicators to detect insomnia cases and evaluate treatment response. Sleep. 2011; 34:601-608.

Cleeland CS. The Brief Pain Inventory - User Guide. Houston, TX: The University of Texas - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 2009.

Pinfold M, Niere KR, O'Leary EF, Hoving JL, Green S, Buchbinder R. Validity and internal consistency of a Whiplash-Specific disability measure. Spine. 2004;29(3): 263-268.

Steiner L, Cernovsky Z. Convergent Validity of Leon Steiner’s Measure of Amaxophobia. Archives of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2020;3(1):45 50.

Cernovsky ZZ, Litman LC, Mann SC, Oyewumi LK, Bureau Y, Mendonça JD, Diamond DM, Raheb H. Validation of the Subjective Neuropsychological Symptoms Scale (SNPSS) in Injured Motorists. Archives of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2021;4(1):6-13.

doi: 10.22259/2638-5201.0401002.

Taylor JE, Deane FP, Podd JV. Determining the focus of driving fears. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2000;14 (5): 453–70. doi:10.1016/s0887-6185(00)00033-5.

Taylor J, Deane F, Podd J. Driving-related fear: a review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2002;22(5):631-645. doi:10.1016/s0272-7358(01)00114-3.

Taylor JE. Understanding Driving-Related Fear. PhD Thesis in Psychology at Massey University, New Zealand, 2002.

Taylor JE, Sullman MJ. What does the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale (DRAS) measure? Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2009;23(4):504-10. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.10.006.

Clapp JD, Olsen SA, Beck JG, Palyo SA, Grant DeMM, Gudmundsdottir B, and Marques L. The Driving Behavior Survey: Scale construction and validation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2011; 25(1):96-105. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.008.

Ehlers A, Taylor JE, Ehring T, Hofmann SG, Deane FP, Roth WT, Podd JV. The Driving Cognitions Questionnaire: development and preliminary psychometric properties. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2007;21(4):493-509.

Stewart AE, St Peter CC. Driving and riding avoidance following motor vehicle crashes in a non-clinical sample: psychometric properties of a new measure. Behavior Research and Therapy. 2004;42(8):859-879.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Cernovsky, Z. Z., Fattahi, M., Litman, L. C., Tenenbaum, S., Leung, B., Nosonova, V., Zhao, C., & Dreer, M. (2021). Validity of Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 3(1), 56-61.