Validity of Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory

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  •   Zack Z. Cernovsky

  •   Milad Fattahi

  •   Larry C. Litman

  •   Silvia Tenenbaum

  •   Beta Leung

  •   Vitalina Nosonova

  •   Crystal Zhao

  •   Manfred Dreer

Abstract

Background: Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory (AAI) is a 23 item questionnaire which provides a quantitative measure of vehicular anxiety (amaxophobia), common in survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). The present study examines criterion and convergent validity of the AAI.


Method: De-identified data from a sample of 50 patients (mean age=39.1, SD=12.1; 17 men, 33 women) injured in high impact MVAs included the scores on Steiner’s AAI, as well as the pain ratings on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), scores on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Subjective Neuropsychological Symptoms Scale (SNPSS), Whetstone Vehicle Anxiety Questionnaire, and on Driving Anxiety Questionnaire (DAQ). The patients’ scores were compared to de-identified AAI data of 22 normal controls (mean age=45.9, SD=21.3; 10 men, 12 women).


Results: Mean score of the patients on Steiner’s AAI (mean=15.0, SD=2.5) was significantly higher than the one of normal controls (mean=3.2, SD=3.8) in a t-test (t=15.6, df=70, p<.001). The underlying correlation is very high (r=.88): this indicates an excellent criterion validity. Satisfactory convergent validity is suggested by significant correlations (p<.001) of Steiner’s AAI scores to the Whetstone Vehicle Anxiety Questionnaire (r=.58) and Driving Anxiety Questionnaire (r=.52). The AAI correlated at p<.001 with post-accident neuropsychological impairments as measured by Rivermead (r=.89) and SNPSS (r=.72). Internal consistency of the AAI is satisfactory (Cronbach alpha=.95).


Discussion and Conclusion: The results indicate satisfactory criterion and convergent validity of the Automobile Anxiety Inventory.


Keywords: Driving Anxiety, Amaxophobia, Convergent Validity, Criterion Validity

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How to Cite
Cernovsky, Z. Z., Fattahi, M., Litman, L. C., Tenenbaum, S., Leung, B., Nosonova, V., Zhao, C., & Dreer, M. (2021). Validity of Steiner’s Automobile Anxiety Inventory. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 3(1), 56-61. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.1.661