The continuing rise of obesity epidemic in the global population has been markedly associated with the escalating occurrence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition represents a complex metabolic imbalance, primarily characterized by excessive intrahepatic accumulation of triglycerides, known as hepatic steatosis. This pathophysiological process is initiated by the disproportionation between the uptake of dietary fatty acids in plasma, as well as the increase of de novo fatty acid synthesis, which is not equally accompanied by the exportation and oxidation of fatty acid in the form of triglycerides. As mentioned earlier, the underlying metabolic process becomes a significant risk factor for developing cardiometabolic complications, involving type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. This review presents a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of obesity and NAFLD to determine innovative management approaches for the prevention and treatment of the disease.
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