A cancer diagnoses and treatment can trigger unpleasant emotions, which may affect the Quality of Life (QoL). Games are known to promote wellness. The aim of this study was to evaluate emotions and QoL of adult cancer patients in medical care waiting rooms and to identify changes in patient emotions after playing board games. A total of 150 patients were included. Emotions were assessed using emojis and QoL with WHOOL-BREF. The mean age was 64.8 ± 9.6 years. QoL was measured as ‘good’ just in the social domain (score 72.38 ± 13.24). The most frequently reported emotion before playing was joy (58.0%), followed by neutral (21.3%), sadness (8.7%) and fear (6.7%); 34.0% of the patients accepted to play a board game. Emotions of neutrality and sadness in these patients significantly changed to joy after playing the game (p<0.05). We conclude that participation in games might positively change emotions in waiting rooms.
A.C. All and L.I. Huycke. “Pain, Cancer, and Older Adults (CE),” Geriatric Nursing, vol.20, n.5, pp. 241–247, 1999.
T.F.H. Deitos and J.F.P. Gaspary. “Cancer biopsychosocial and psychoneuroimmunologic effects on patients and their families,” Rev Bras Cancerol, vol.43, n.2, pp. 117-126, 1997.
T. Juvakka and J. Kylmã. “Hope in adolescents with cancer,” Eur J OncolNurs, vol.13, n.3, pp.193–199, 2009.
S.E. Mac Lement and H.M. Chochinov. “Hope in advanced cancer patients,” Eur J Cancer, vol. 44, n.8, pp.1169–1174, 2008.
A.M. Reb. “Transforming the death sentence: elements of hope in women with advanced ovarian cancer,” OncolNurs Forum, vol. 34, n.6, pp. 70-81, 2007.
R.Y. Wood and N.R. Della-Monica. “Psychosocial Factors Influencing Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal Among Older Women,” Qualitative Health Research, vol. 783–795, 2011.
W. Chen, R. Zheng, P.D. Baade, S. Zhang, H. Zeng, F. Bray, A. Jemal, X.Q. Yu and J. He. “Cancer statistics in China,” CA Cancer J Clin, vol.66, n.2, pp.115–132, 2016.
S.K. Park, H.A. Park and J. Lee. “Understanding the Public's Emotions about Cancer: Analysis of Social Media Data,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol.17, n.19, pp. E7160, 2020.
S.S. Silva, T.A.A. Aquino and R.M. Santos. “Patients with cancer: cognitions and emotions coming from diagnosis,” Rev bras tercogn, vol. 4, n.2, pp. 73-88, 2008.
R. Resega, S. Piva, A. Bramati, C. Lurati, N. La Verde, M. Riva, M.C. Garassino, A. Moretti, C. Mencacci, V. Torri, G. Farina, M.C. Dazzani. “Prospective evaluation through questionnaires of the emotional status of cancer patients in the waiting rooms of a department of oncology,” J Health SocSci, vol.1, n.2, pp.113-122, 2016.
J. Barraclough, Cancer and emotion – A practical guide to psychooncology, Chichester: John Wiley, 1999.
S.E. Hullman, S.L. Robb and K.L. “Rand. Life goals in patients with cancer: a systematic review of the literature,” Psychooncology, vol.25, n.4, pp. 387-399, 2016.
G.J. Yoo, E.G. Levine, C. Aviv, C. Ewing and A. Au. “Older women, breast cancer, and social support,” SupportCareCancer, vol. 18, n.12, pp.1521-1530, 2010.
M. Kangas and J.J. Gross. “The affect regulation in cancer framework: Understanding affective responding across the cancer trajectory,” J Health Psychol, vol.25, n.1, pp.1–19, 2017.
G.I. Ringdal, K. Ringdal, M.S. Jordhoy and S. Kaasa. “Does social support from family and friends work as a buffer against reactions to stressful life events such as terminal cancer?,” Palliat Supportive, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 61–69, 2007.
L.J. Haywood, F.C. Kew, P. Bramham, J. Spink, J. Capenerhurst and I. Henry. Understanding Leisure; New York: Stanley Thornes, 2019.
R.C. Giuliano, L.M.S. Silva and N.M. Orozimbo. “Reflection on “playing” in the therapeutical work with adult patients with cancer,” PsicolCiencProf, vol.29, n.4, pp.868-879, 2009.
C.C. Moura, Z.M.R. Resck and E.M.R. Dázio. “Recreational activities performed with neoplasia carrier inpatients in a general hospital,” Rev Rene, vol.13, n.3, pp. 667-676, 2012.
A.K. Pon. “My wonderful life: A board game for patients with advanced cancer,” ILLNESS, CRISIS & LOSS, vol.18, n.2, pp. 147-161, 2010.
P. Ekman, Basic emotions in: Handbook of Cognition and Emotion, Sussex: Wiley & Sons, 2005.
M.G. Beaupré and U. Hess. “Cross-cultural emotion recognition among Canadian ethnic groups,” J Cross Cult Psychol, vol. 36, n.1, pp.355–370, 2005.
A. Schirmer and R. Adolphs. “Emotion perception from face, voice, and touch: Comparisons and convergence,” Trends CognSci, vol.21, n.3, pp. 216-228, 2017.
K.L. Schmidt and J. Cohn. “Human facial expressions as adaptations: Evolutionary questions in facial expression,” Am J PhysAnthropol, vol.44, n.1, pp.3-24, 2001.
A. Sampietro. “Emoji and rapport management in Spanish WhatsApp chats,” Journal of Pragmatics, vol. 143, pp.109-120, 2019.
J.C. Reis, C. Jensen, R. Bonacin, H. Hornung and C.C. Baranauskas. “Expressive icons for the communication of intentions,” ICEIS, vol.2, n.1, pp. 388-399, 2016.
B. Röhrig, J.B. Prel, D. Wachtlin and M. Blettner. “Types of Study in Medical Research: Part 3 of a Series on Evaluation of Scientific Publications,” DtschArztebl Int, vol.106, n.15, pp. 262–268, 2009.
Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (March 2014). Caracterização da assistência oncológica nas Redes Regionais de Atenção à Saúde no estado de São Paulo (Characterization of câncer care in the Regional Health Care Networks in the state of São Paulo-Br), Rede Hebe Camargo de Combate ao câncer [online].
D.E. Papalia and G. Martorell, Experience Human Development, New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.
M.P.A. Fleck, S. Louzada, M. Xavier, E. Chachamovich, G. Vieira, L. Santos and V. Pinzon. “Application of the Portuguese version of the abbreviated instrumentof quality of life WHOQOL-bref,” Rev. SaúdePública, vol.34, n.2, pp.178-183, 2000. doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102000000200012.
The WHOQOL Group. “Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Assesment,” Psychol Med, vol.28, n.5, pp.551-558, 1998.
The Australian Centre for Postraumatic Mental Health. Trauma related research, training and policy development [online]. Available: http://www.psychiatry.unimelb.edu.au/qol/whoqol/whoqolinsruments.html#algorithm.
M. Tazaki, Y. Nakane, T. Endo, F. Kakikawa, K. Kano, H. Kawano, K. Kuriyama, K. Kuroko, E. Miyaoka, H. Ohta, N. Okamoto, S. Shiratori, S. Takamiya, K. Tanemura and R. Tsuchiya. “Results of a qualitative and field study using the WHOQOL instrument for cancer patients,” Jpn J ClinOncoI, vol.28, n.2, pp.134-141, 1998. http://doi.org/10.1093/jjco/28.2.134.
V.A. Ferreira, I.N.T. Silveira, N.S. Gomes, M.T. Ruiz and S.R. Silva. “Quality of life of women with gynecologic and breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy,” Rev Rene, vol.16, n.2, pp.266-274, 2015.
T.C. Mansano-Schlosser and M.F. Ceolim. “Quality of life of cancer patients during thechemotherapy period,” Texto&contextoenferm, vol. 21, n.3, pp.600-607, 2012.
A. Pacian, T.B. Kulik, J. Pacian, P. Chruściel, D. Żołnierczuk-Kieliszek and M.J. Jarosz. “Psychosocial aspect of quality of life of Polish women with breast cancer,” Ann Agric Environ Med, vol.19, n.3, pp. 509-512, 2012.
M. Huesch, A. Chetlen, J. Segel and S. Schetter. “Frequencies of Private Mentions and Sharing of Mammography and Breast Cancer Terms on Facebook: A Pilot Study,” J Med Internet Res, vol.19, n.6, pp. 201, 2017.
World Medical Association. (November 2013) WMA. Declaration of Helsinki –Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. [online]. Available: https://www.wma.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/DoH-Oct2013-JAMA.pdf
L.J. Cronbach. “Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of test,” Psychometrika, vol.16, n.3, pp.297-334, 1983.
D. Osoba. “Lessons Learned from Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Oncology,” J ClinOncol, vol.12, n.3, pp.608-616, 1994.
E.A. Araújo Neto, B. Alves, F.S. Gehrke, L.A. Azzalis, V.C.B. Junqueira, L.V.A. Sousa and F. Adami, F.L.A. Fonseca. “Quality of Life of Post-Mastectomy Women Living in a Semi-Arid Region of Brazil,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol.16, n.6, pp.601, 2017.
D. Rukshani, P. Kahandawala, K. Jayawardana, D. Karunarathne, L.S. Galgamuwa, C. Kumara, C. Gamage. “Factors associated with quality of life among cancer patients in Sri Lanka,” IJCMPH, vol.5, n.7, pp.2705-2713, 2018.
M.S. Aslam, S. Naveed, A. Ahmed, Z. Abbas and M.A.A. Gull. “Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients and Evaluation of Patients Opinion about Starvation Based Differential Chemotherapy,” J CancerTher, vol.5, n.8, pp.817-822, 2014.
M.P.A. Fleck, Avaliação da qualidade de vida: Guia para profissionais da saúde – Qualityof Life evaluation: a guide for health professional, Porto Alegre: ArtMed, 2008.
J.L. Rodriguez, N.A. Hawkins, Z. Berkowitz and C. Li. “Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors,” AJPM, vol.5, pp.518-527, 2015.
The Whoqol Group, The development of the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument (the WHOQOL) in Orley J, Kuyken W, editors. Quality of life assessment: international perspectives, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 41-6, 1994.
B.P. Hermann. “The evolution of health-related quality of life assessement in epilepsy,” Qual life Res, vol.4, n.2, pp.87-100, 1995.
M.M. Tugade and B.L. Fredrickson. “Resilient Individuals Use Positive Emotions to Become back from Negative Emotional Experiences,” J PersSocPsychol, vol.86, n.2, pp.320-333, 2004.
B.L. Fredrickson and T. Joiner. “Positive Emotions Trigger Upward Spirals Toward Emotional Well-Being,” Psychological Science, vol.13, n.2, pp.172-175, 2002.
E.J. Morrison, P.J. Novotny, J.A. Sloan, P. Yang, C.A. Patten, K.J. Ruddy and M.M. Clark. “Emotional Problems, Quality of Life, and Symptom Burden in Patients With Lung Cancer,” Clin Lung Cancer, vol.18, n.5, pp.97-503, 2017.
E. Aitini, A. Sempreboni, P. Aleotti, D. Zamagni, G. Cavazzini, R. Barbieri, R. Cengarle, C. Rabbi, F. Pari and B. Vivorio. “Anxiety Levels in Cancer Patients and “Life Sound” Experience,” Tumori, vol.93, pp.75-77, 2007.
C. Catania, T. De Pas, I. Minchella, F. De Braud, D. Micheli, L. Adamoli, G. Spitaleri, C. Noberasco, A. Milani, M.G. Zampino, F. Toffalorio, D. Radice, A. Goldhirsch, F. Nolè."Waiting and the waiting room: how do you experience them?" emotional implications and suggestions from patients with cancer,” J Cancer Educ, vol. 26, n.2, pp.388-94, 2011.
J. Ahloy-Dellaire, J. Espinosa and G. Mason. “Play and optimal welfare: does play behavior indicate the presence of positive affective states?,” Behav Processes, vol.156, pp.3-15, 2018.
J.J. Gross. “Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects,” PsychologicalInquiry, vol.26, pp.1–26, 2015.
L.C.G. Leme, R.E. Corrêa, R.F. Magalhães, P.E.N.F. Velho, R.E. Tolocka. “Play Games in the Waiting Room of Cancer Units: A Preliminary Study,” Movement, pp. 220-221, 2018.
J. Huizinga, Homo Ludens, a study of the play element in culture, Boston:Angelico Press, 2016.
K. Koukourikos, L. Tzeha, P. Pantelidou, A. Tsaloglidou. “The importance of play during hospitalization of children,” Mater Sociomed, vol. 27, n.6, pp. 438-441, 2015.
J.R. Webb. “Play Therapy with hospitalized children,” International Journal of Play Therapy, vol.4, n.1, pp.51–59, 1995.
A.L.C. Costa Junior, S.M.G. Coutinho, R.S. Ferreira. “Planned recreation in pediatric unit waiting room: behavioral effects,” Paidéia, vol.16, n.33, pp.111-118, 2006.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.