Staphylococcus spp. have become important human pathogens in recent decades due to the selection of resistant bacteria and the spread of their resistance genes in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus spp. obtained from sewage in the city of Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer method for ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, linezolid, penicillin, rifampicin, sulfazotrim, tetracycline and vancomycin. Among the strains isolated from sewage, the greatest resistance was observed for penicillin and oxacillin, with 100% of isolates resistant to these antibiotics. Some antibiotics had resistant and sensitive strains (ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, azithromycin). Staphylococcus spp. were identified as sensitive to ciprofloxacin chloramphenicol gentamicin linezolid sulfazotrim tetracycline, vancomycin, with no strain resistant to these antibiotics.
Y. Guo, G. Song, M. Sun, J. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Prevalence and Therapies of Antibiotic-Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus”, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, vol. 10:107, 2020.
W. A. McGuinness, N. Malachowa, and F. R. DeLeo, “Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus”, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 90 pp. 269-281, 2017.
K. M. Craft, J. M. Nguyen, L. J. Berg, and S. D. Townsend, “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): antibiotic-resistance and the biofilm phenotype” Medicinal Chemistry Communications ,vol 10, pp 1231–1241, 2019.
A. M. C. Hamzah, C. C. Yeo, S. M. Puah, K. H. Chua, and C.H. Chew, “Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Malaysia: A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance and Characteristics of the Clinical Isolates, 1990–2017” Antibiotics, vol. 8, 128, 2019.
M. B. Said, M. S. Abbassi, P. Gómez, L. Ruiz-Ripa, S. Sghaier, C. Ibrahim, C. Torres, and A. Hassen, “Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wastewater treatment plants in Tunisia: occurrence of human and animal associated lineages”. Journal Water Health, vol.15 (4), pp. 638–643, 2017.
A. Zehra, R. Singh, S. Kaur, and J. P. S. Gill, “Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock (bovine and swine)”, Veterinary World, vol. 10(6), pp. 598-604, 2017.
L. M. Sejas, S. Silbert, A. O. Reis, and H. S. Sader, “Evaluation of the quality of the antimicrobial agents disks used in disk-diffusion tests comercially available in Brazil”, Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial. vol.39. pp. 27-35, 2003.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-NCCLS. “Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Fourth Informational Supplement”. NCCLS document M100-S24. Wayne, PA, 2014.
F. C. Cabello, H. P. Godfrey, A. Tomova, L. Ivanova, H. Dolz, A. Millanao, A. H. Buschmann, “Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: Its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health”, Environmental Microbiology, vol. 15, pp. 1917-1942, 2013.
W. L. C. Bernardo, M. F. G. boriollo, R. B. Gonçalves, J. F. Höfling, “Staphylococcus aureus ampicillin-resistant from the odontological clinic environment”, Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, vol. 47, pp.19-24, 2005.
J. G. César, A. M. Peres, C. P. Neves, E. T. F. Abreu, J. F. Mello, Â. N. Moreira, and K. L. Rodrigues “Microbiological assessment of lettuce salads and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp.”, Nutrición Hospitalaria, vol. 32, pp. 2280-2285, 2015.
J. Karzis, I. M. Petzer, E. F. Donkin, V. Naidoo, E. M. C. Etter, “Climatic and Regional antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in South African dairy herds”, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 86(1), a1674, 2019.
A. P. Basso, P. D. Martins, G. Nachtigall, S. Sand, T. M. Moura, A. P. G. Frazzon, “Antibiotic resistance and enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus sp. isolates from polluted water in Southern Brazil”, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, vol. 86(4), pp. 1813-1820, 2014.
Y. Cong, S. Yang, and X. Rao, “Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A review of case updating and clinical features”, Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 21, pp. 169-176, 2020.
C. C. Rossi, M. F. Pereira, and M. G. Marval, “Underrated Staphylococcus species and their role in antimicrobial resistance spreading”, Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 43, e20190065, 2020.
F. Hosseinkhani, M. T. Buirs, F. Jabalameli, M. Emaneini and W. B. van Leeuwen, “High diversity in SCCmec elements among multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains originating from paediatric patients; characterization of a new composite island”, Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 67, pp. 915-921, 2018.
World Health Organization - WHO (2017) “Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance”. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.