Indoor Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease


  •   Waffa Aswaq Al-Shammari


Objective: To measure an association between factors related to indoor air pollution and CVD in the Hail population of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: A case control study was conducted in King Khalid hospitals. Convenience and random sampling techniques were used to recruit cases and controls. Structured Questionnaire was used to collect data from 302 CVD cases and 300 controls. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 24.0 statistical software.

Results: The bivariate analysis showed significant association between (i) socio-demographic characteristics (ii) air quality and occupation related variables (iii) ventilation and cooking related factors and (iv) exposure of different types of smoke, and CVD (p<0.001).  The independent risk factors of CVD by Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratios of variables are:  age groups (25-50 & >50 years) (2.95&22.84); education level (uneducated & primary) (4.39&2.64); cigarette smoking (1.89); shisha smoking (2.12), exposed to cigarette smoke (2.50); burning scented wood (3.09), burning of mosquito repellent (2.18) and kitchen type (2.83) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: This study shows various sources of air pollutants are associated with CVD. The composition of indoor and outdoor air is same in Hail city but amount of contaminants is high in indoor environments. Future studies longitudinal studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Cardiovascular Disease, Particulate Matters, Hail City, Saudi Arabi


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How to Cite
Al-Shammari, W. A. (2020). Indoor Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2(5).