Overt and Covert Postpartum Urinary Retention, Risk Factors and Complications

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  •   Zalina Nusee

  •   Nurul Hikmah Mohamed Nor

  •   Aimi Rahayu A. Rashid

  •   Hamizah Ismail

  •   Hasliza Zakaria

Abstract

Background: The overall risk of postpartum urinary retention (PUR) is between 0.05% and 37%. Being Asian increases the risk, while other factors include epidural analgesia, prolonged first and second stage of labour and previous history of PUR.


Subjects and Methods: This is a cohort study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Pahang State of Malaysia over one year duration. All postpartum women were included. The post void residual volume (PVRV) was measured after minimum 6 hours postpartum or when the subject complained of inability to pass urine. The PVRV of more than 150ml was considered as PUR. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.


Results: Of 1000 included women, mean age was 28.44(5.68), parity of 2.0 and 75.8% had vaginal delivery. PUR was diagnosed in 42 (4.2%) women, of whom 4 (9.5%) were diagnosed with overt and 38 (90.5%) had covert PUR. Parity and perineal tear were significantly associated with PUR. Second degree perineal tear (including episiotomy) were independent risk factors associated with PUR (adjusted OR 3.19, CI 1.23 - 8.30).


Conclusion: Incidence of PUR in our population is low compared with others. Second degree perineal tear (including episiotomy) is a risk factor for PUR. PUR screening is not needed in our population.


Keywords: postpartum, urinary retention, post void residual volume, overt, covert

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How to Cite
Nusee, Z., Mohamed Nor, N., A. Rashid, A., Ismail, H., & Zakaria, H. (2020). Overt and Covert Postpartum Urinary Retention, Risk Factors and Complications. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.4.391