Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak In Nigeria: How Prepared Is The Radiography Sector?


  •   G. M. Akpaniwo

  •   D. A. Olushola

  •   M. C. Okoji

  •   N. O. Egbe


Introduction: Following the outbreak and increasing numbers of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in Nigeria, healthcare professionals are at the forefront in dealing with the pandemic. Radiographers are among the first line care givers. The study is aim to assess the level of preparedness of the Radiography sector in Nigeria.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted using self-completion questionnaire. The questionnaire was generated on the 26th of March 2020, using online Google forms consisting of closed and open ended questions. Paired t-test statistic was used to compare the difference between "Before and After" changes in departmental protocols, using the SPSS statistical software, version 20. Statistically significant level was set at 0.05.

Results: A total of 107 radiographers from across the country responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 78(72%) were male and 27.1% female, giving a male to female ratio of 3:1. Following the outbreak of COVID-19, 86% of the respondents report that there have been changes in the departmental procedures. Sixty-seven percent said "No" to the availability of an appointment system, guidelines to reduce human to human contact(57%) and auditing for suspected COVID-19 cases (58.9%). Only 16(15%) of the respondents had received emergency training towards the fight against COVID-19. Of these, 6(37.5%) were trained  in patient care, only 1(6.3%) on emergency response while 9 (56.3%) received training in limiting human to human transmission.

Conclusion: Findings in this study, suggest inadequate preparedness, with evidence of inadequate provision of equipment (Mobile X-ray and Ultrasound machines) for the diagnosis and management of cases in departments and isolation centers. In addition, emergency training on COVID-19 issues is low. The foregoing calls for adoption of urgent and immediate remedial measures.

Implications for practice: This study identify areas of practice that may detract from achieving optimum service delivery and safety during the pandemic.

Keywords: Novel coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Acute respiratory infection, Radiography


Biscayart C, Angeleri P, Lloveras S, Chaves TD, Schlagenhauf P, Rodríguez-Morales AJ. The next big threat to global health? 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): What advice can we give to travellers?–Interim recommendations January 2020, from the Latin-American society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI). Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2020 Jan;33:101567.

Ahmad T, Khan M, Khan FM, Hui J. Are we ready for the new fatal Coronavirus: scenario of Pakistan?. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2020 Mar 3;16(3):736-8.

Ahmad T, Khan M, Haroon TH, Nasir S, Hui J, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. COVID-19: Zoonotic aspects. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020 Feb 27.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X, Cheng Z. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):497-506.

Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, Xing F, Liu J, Yip CC, Poon RW, Tsoi HW. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):514-23.

Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, Liu S, Zhao P, Liu H, Zhu L, Tai Y. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet respiratory medicine. 2020 Apr 1;8(4):420-2.

Template: COVID-19 pandemic data. Available at [Accessed on 20/5/2020]

COVIDE-19 case update by Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) 2020. Available at [Accessed on 20/5/2020]

Chandy PE, Nasir MU, Srinivasan S, Klass D, Nicolaou S, Babu SB. Interventional radiology and COVID-19: evidence-based measures to limit transmission. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2020 Mar 31.

Bastola A, Sah R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Lal BK, Jha R, Ojha HC, Shrestha B, Chu DK, Poon LL, Costello A, Morita K. The first 2019 novel coronavirus case in Nepal. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020 Mar 1;20(3):279-80.

Kim H. Outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19): What is the role of radiologists?, (2020): 1-2.

"Beijing orders 14-day quarantine for all returnees". BBC News. 15 February 2020. Available at [Retrieved 21 April 2020].

"Egypt announces first Coronavirus infection". Egypt Today. Available at [Retrieved 21 April 2020]

"FIRST CASE OF CORONA VIRUS DISEASE CONFIRMED IN NIGERIA". Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. 28 February 2020. Available at [Retrieved 21 April 2020].

Maclean, Ruth; Dahir, Abdi Latif (2020). "Nigeria Responds to First Coronavirus Case in Sub-Saharan Africa". The New York Times. Avialable at [Retrieved 21 April 2020].

Hansell DM, Bankier AA, MacMahon H, McLoud TC, Muller NL, Remy J. Fleischner Society: glossary of terms for thoracic imaging. Radiology. 2008 Mar;246(3):697-722.

Song F, Shi N, Shan F, Zhang Z, Shen J, Lu H, Ling Y, Jiang Y, Shi Y. Emerging 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia. Radiology. 2020 Apr;295(1):210-7.

Chung M, Bernheim A, Mei X, Zhang N, Huang M, Zeng X, Cui J, Xu W, Yang Y, Fayad ZA, Jacobi A. CT imaging features of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Radiology. 2020 Apr;295(1):202-7.

World Health Organization. Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (‎‎ COVID-19)‎‎ and considerations during severe shortages: interim guidance, 6 April 2020. World Health Organization; 2020.

Burns R. introduction to research methods. London: SAGE; 2000.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Akpaniwo, G., Olushola, D., Okoji, M., & Egbe, N. (2020). Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak In Nigeria: How Prepared Is The Radiography Sector?. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2(4).