Predicting Alzheimer's Disease Onset


  •   Harold I. Zeliger


Recently, a method for assigning the probability of disease onset to all people, those clinically ill as well as those without prevalent disease has been described and termed the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI). The OSI, as originally formatted, does not predict which disease will more likely develop, only that further disease is predicted with increased OSI. It is hypothesized here that the OSI may be used to demonstrate which parameters are more contributory to the onset of a particular disease if it is measured at the time of onset of that disease. To test this hypothesis, the OSI has been reformatted to serve in that capacity for Alzheimer's disease (AD) with the anticipation that the OSI could serve to predict not only the likelihood of onset, but also identify those parameters that are most contributory to AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, oxidative stress, Oxidative Stress Index, Predicting disease onset


Agarwal S, Ghosh A, Chatterjee SN. (1987). Spontaneous release of malondialdehyde from ultra violet lightexposed liposomal membranes. Z Naturforsch 42c:585-588.

Adlard PA, Bush AI. (2018). Metals and Alzheimer's disease: How far have we come in the clinic? J Alzheimer's Dis (2018). 62:1369-1379.

Alford S, Patel D, Perakakis N, Manzoros CS. (2018). Obesity as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: weighing the evidence. Obes Rev 19(2):269-280.

Bannon M. (2011). Co-morbidities and Alzheimer's disease: the need for vigilance. QJ Med 104:911-912.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ. (2014). Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. World J Diabetes 5(6):889-893.

Barnes DE, Yaffe K. (2011). The projected impact of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer's disease prevalence. Lancet Neurol 10(9):819-828.

Bauer K, Schwartzkopf L, Graessel E, Holle R. (2014). A claims data-based comparison of comorbidity in individuals with and without dementia. BMC Geriatrics 14:10. Accessed January 12, 2019.

Block ML, Caldersom-Garciduenas L. (2009). Air pollution: mechanisms of neuroinflammation & CNS disease. Tends Nuerosci 32(9):506-516. Accessed January 11, 2019.

Breunig JJ, Guillot-Sestier MV, Town T. (2013). Brain injury, neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease. Aging Neuroscience July 2013|Vol 5|Article 5.

Bunn F, Burn AM, Goodman C, Rait G, Norton S, Robinson L, et al. (2014). Comorbidity and dementia: a scoping review of the literature. BMC Med 12:192.

Carey IM, Anderson HR, Atkinson RW, Beevers SD, Cook DG, Strachan DP, et al. (2018). Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England. BMJ Open 8(9):e022404. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022404. Accessed January 10, 2019.

Cencioni C, Spallotta F, Martelli F, Valente S, Mai A, Zeiher AM, Gaetano C. (2013). Oxidative stress and epigenetic regulation in aging and age-related diseases. Int J Mol Sci 14:17643-17663.

Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL. (1987). A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis; 40(5):373-383

Christen Y. (2000). Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71(suppl):621S-629S.

D'Aiuto F, NIbali L, Parkar M, Patel , Suvan J, Donos N. (2010). Oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and severe periodontitis. J Dent Res 89(11):1241-1246.

Dato S, Crocco P, D'Aquila P, de Rango F, Bellizzi D, Rose G, Passarino G. (2013). Exploring the role of genetic variability and lifestyle in oxidative stress response for healthy aging and longevity. Int J Mol Sci 14:16443-16472.

Deng Q, DAi X, Feng W, Huang S, Yuan Y, Xiao Y, et al. (2019). Co-exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microRNA expression, and early health damage in coke oven workers. Environ Int 122:369-380. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.056. Accessed January 8, 2019.

Dominy SS, Lynch C, Ermini F. Benedyk M. Marczyk A, Konradi A, et al. (2019). Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer's disease brains: Evidence for disease causation and treatment with small-molecule inibators. Sci Adv 5:easu3333. Accessed January 31, 2019.

Dunn NDM, Mullee M, Perry VH, Holmes C. (2005). Association between dementia and infectious disease: Evidence from a case-control study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disorders 19(2):91-94.

Durazzo TC, Mattsson N, Weiner MW. (2014). Smoking and increased Alzheimer's disease risk: a review of potential mechanisms. Alzheimers Dement (3Suppl):S122-145.

Durazzo TC, Mattsson N, Weiner MW, Korecka M, Trojanowski JQ, Shaw LM. (2014a). History of cigarette smoking in cognitively-normal elders is associated with elevated cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of oxidative stress. Drug Alcohol Depend 142:262-268.

Eimer WA, Kumar V, Navalpur Shanmugam NK, Mitchell T, Washicosky KJ, Gyorgy B, et al. (2018). Alzheimer's disease-associated Beta-amyloid is rapidly seeded by Herpesviridae to protect against brain infection. Neuron 100(6):1527-1532.

Erickson MA, Banks WA. (2013). Blood-brain barrier dysfunction as a cause and consequence of Alzheimer's disease. J Cerebral Blood Flow Metab 33:1500-1513.

Fafara A, Ciesielska N, Damiza A, Chatys Z, Bentryn D, Gajos A, et al. (2014). Comorbidities disorders and Alzheimer's disease. J Health Sci 4(6):57-70.

Guillaumet-Adkins A, Yanez Y, Preis-Diaz MD, Calabria I, Palancia-Ballester C, Sandoval J. (2017). Epigenetics and oxidative stress in aging. Ox Med Cell Longevity Article No. ID9175806. doi: 10.1155/2017/9175806.

Honjo K, van Reekum R, Verhoeff NP. (2009). Alzheimer's disease and infection: do infectious agents contribute to proression of Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimers Dement 5(4):348-360.

Huang TT, Leu D, Zou Y. (2015). Oxidative stress and redox regulation on hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. Arch Biochem Biophys 576:2-7.

Huang WJ, Zhang X, Chen WW. (2016). Role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (review). Biomed Rep 4:519-22.

Jiang T, Yu JT, Tian Y, Tan L. (2013). Epidemiology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease: From genetic to non-genetic factors. Curr Alzheimer Res 9:852-867.

Justice NJ. (2018). The relationship between stress and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Stress 8:127-133.

Kamat PK, Kalani A, Rai S, Swarnkar S, Tota S, Nath C, Tyagi N. (2016). Mechanism of oxidative stress and synapse dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: Understanding the therapeutics strategies. Mol Neurobiol 53(1):648-661.

Karim S, Mizra , Kamal MA, Abuzenadah AM, Azher EI, Al-Qahtani MH, Sohrab SS. An association of virus infection with type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. (2014). CNS Neurol Discord Drug Targets 13(3):429-439.

Karki R, Kodamullil AT, Hoffmann-Apitius M. (2017). Comorbidity analysis between Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on shalred pathways and the role of T2DM drugs. J Alzheimer's Dis 60:721-731.

Kilian J, Kitazawa M. 2018. The emerging risk of exposure to air pollution on cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease - Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies. Biomed J 41(3):141-162.

Kuang D, Zhang W, Deng Q, Zhang X, Huang K, Guan L, et al. (2013). Dose-response relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid in coke oven workers. Environ Sci Technol 47(13):7446-7456.

Lee HJ, Park MK, Seo YR. (2018). Pathogenic mechanisms of heavy metal induced-Alzheimer's disease. Toxicol Environ Sci 10(1):1-10.

Lehrer S, Rheinstein PH, Rosenzweig KE. (2017). Association of radon background and total background ionizing radiation with Alzheimer's disease deaths in U.S. states. J Alzheimers Dis 59(2):737-741.

Liu Z, Li T, Wei N, Zhao Z, Liang H, Ji X, et al. (2015). The ambiguous relationship of oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, and autophagy dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Oxidative Med Cellular Longevity Article ID 352723. Accessed February 1, 2019.

Lockhead JJ, McCaffrey G, Quigley CE, Finch J, DeMarco KM, Nametz N, Davis TP. (2010). Oxidative stress increases blood-brain barrier permeability and induces alterations in occludin during hypoxia-reoxygenation. J Cerebral Blood Flow Metab 30:1625-1636.

Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Shea S, Mayeux R. (2002). Caloric intake and the risk of Alzheimer disease. (2002). Ach Neur 59(8):1258-1263.

Machado, A, Herrera AJ, de Pablos RM, Espisona-Oliva AM, Sarmeinto M, Ayala A, et al. (2018). Chronic stress as risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Rev Neurosci 25(6):785-804,

Misiak B, Leszek J, Kiejna A. (2012). Metabolic syndrome, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease--the emerging role of systemic low-grade inflammation and adiposity. Brain Res Bull 89(3-4):144-149.

Mons U, Schottker B, Muller H, Kliegel M, Brenner H. (2013). History of lifetime smoking, smoking cessation and cognitive function in the elderly population. Eur J Epidemiol 10:823-831.

Moulton PV, Yang W. (2012). Air pollution, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer's disease. J Environ Pub Health, Article ID 472751, deoi:10.1155/2012/47251. Accessed January 5, 2019.

Naderali EK, Ratcliffe SH, Dale MC. (2009). Obesity and Alzheimer's disease: A link between body weight and cognitive function in old age. Am J Alzheimer's Dis & Other Dementias 24(6):445-449.

Najjar S, Pearlman DM, Devinsy O, Najjar A, Zagzag D. (2013). Neurovascular unit dysfunction with blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability contributes to major depressive disorder: a review of clinical and experimental evidence. J Neuroinflammation 10:142. Accessed March 1, 2019.

Nation DA, Sweeney MD, Montagne AM Abhay P, Sagare AP, D'Orazio LM, et al. (2019). Blood-brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction. Nature Magazine. Accessed January 31, 2019.

National Institute of Aging. United States National Institute of Health. (2015). Accessed April 6, 2019.

Nielsen F, Mikkelsen BB, Niesen JB, Andersen HR, Grandjean P. (1997). Plasma malondialdehyde as biomarker for oxidative stress: reference interval and efforts of life-style factors. Clin Chem 43(7):1209-1214.

Ott A, Slooter AJ, Hofman A, van Harskamp E, Witteman JC, Van Broeckhoven C, et al. (1998). Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet 351(9119):1840-1843.

Poblador-Plou B, Calderon-Larranage A, Marta-Moreno J, Hancco-Saavedra J, Sicras-Mainar A, Solijak M, Prados-Torres A. (2014). Comorbidity of dementia: a cross-sectional study of primary care older patients. BMC Psychiatry 14:84. Accessed January 11, 2019.

Profenno LA, Porsteinsson AP, Faraone SV. Meta-analysis of Alzheimer's disease risk with obesity, diabetes and related disorders. (2010). Biol Psych 67(6):505-512.

Perry G, Cash AD, Smith MA. (2002). Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress. J Biomed Biotechnol 2(3):12-123.

Ramos-Cejudo, J, Wisniewski T, Marmar C, Zetterberg H, Biennow K, de Leon MJ, Fossati S. (2018). Traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease: The cerebrovascular link. EBioMedicine: 21-30. dou: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.01.021. Accessed January 14, 2019.

Redhead B, Haure-Mirande, Funk CC, Richards MA, Shannon P, Haroutunian V, et al. (2018). Multiscale analysis of independent Alzheimer's cohorts find disruption of molecular, genetic, and clinical networks by human Herpesvisus. Neuron 99:64-82.

Sabbagh MN, Malek-Ahmadi R, Belden CM, Connor DJ, Pearson C, Jacobson R, et al. (2010). Alzheimers Dis 22(3):1015-1021.

Sochocka M, Zwolinska K, Leszek J. The infectious etiology of Alzheimer's disease. (2017). Curr Neuropharmacol 15:9967-1009.

Tang FR. (2018). Radiation and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimer's Dis & Parkinsonism 8(1). doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000418. Accessed January 8, 2019.

Tonnies E, Trushina E. (2017). Oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimer's Dis 57:1105-1121.

Trempe CL, Lewis TJ. (2018). Its never too early of too late-to end the epidemic of Alzheimer's by preventing or reversing causation from pre-birth to death. Front Aging Neurosci. doi: 10.3389/fragi.2018.00205. Accessed March 6, 2019.

Turner RC, Lucke-Wald BP, Robson MJ, Lee ML, Bailes JE. (2016). Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Baing Inj 30(11):1279-1292.

Willcox DC, Scapagnini G, Willcox BJ. (2014). Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: A focus on the Okinawan diet. Mech Ageing Dev 136-137:148-162.

Yan D, Zhang Y, Liu L, Yan H. (2016). Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta analysis. Sci Reports 6: 32222. doi: 10.1038/srep32222. Accessed January 5, 2019.

Yanjun L, Yongming L, Xiaotao L, Zhang S, Zhao J, Zhu X. (2017). Head injury as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 observational studies. PLOS ONE 12(1):e0169650. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169650. Accessed January 13, 2019.

Yuan SH, Wang SG. (2018). Alzheimer's dementia due to suspected CTE from subconcussive head impact. Case Reports Neurol Med, Article ID 7890269. https// Accessed January 3, 2019.

Zeliger HI. (2014). Co-morbidities of environmental diseases: A common cause. Interdisip Toxicol 7(3):101-106

Zeliger HI. (2017). Oxidative stress index predicts disease onset. J Med Res Prac 6(3):86-92.

Zeliger HI. (2016). Predicting disease onset in clinically healthy people. Interdiscip Toxicol 9(2):15-21.

Zeliger HI, Lipinski B. (2015). Physiochemical basis of human degenerative disease. Interdiscip Toxicol 8(1):39-54.

Zhang F, Jiang L. (2015). Neuroinflammtion in Alzheimre's disease. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment 11:243-256.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Zeliger, H. (2019). Predicting Alzheimer’s Disease Onset. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 1(1).