Aim: To determine whether term pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection who received antiretroviral therapy had high apoptosis inducing factor expression in the placenta.
Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, and educational network hospitals. Subjects collected were termed pregnant women with HIV (+) who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) 6 months as a risk group and pregnant women with HIV (-) as a non-risk group. AIF expression was assessed by immunohistochemical examination of placental tissue. The AIF expression cut-off value was determined by constructing a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The chi-square test assessed the difference in proportion by displaying the prevalence ratio (RP) results. The significance of this study was p<0.05.
Results: 40 pregnant women were included in the risk and no-risk groups. There was no difference in age, gestational age, parity and BMI in the two groups. The mean AIF expression was significantly higher in the group with HIV (+) (162±52.5) than HIV (-) (126.75±61.4), p-value = 0.003. The cut-off value of AIF expression was 112.50, with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 45%. After classification, a significantly higher proportion of AIF expression was found in the HIV (+) group (42.5%) than in the HIV (-) group (27.5%) with p=0.038. Pregnant women with HIV (+) and receiving antiretroviral therapy for six months had a 4.6 times higher chance of having a high AIF prevalence than pregnant women who were not infected with HIV (RP=4.63; 95% CI=1.023 – 21.004).
Conclusion: Term pregnant women with HIV infection who received antiretroviral therapy had high AIF expression in the placenta.
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