Gynecomastia Establishing Etiological, Clinical Aspects and Surgical Management


  •   S. Karti

  •   A. Jalal

  •   A. Chfiri

  •   A. El Harti

  •   M. Diouri


Gynecomastia is a benign unilateral or bilateral increase in glandular tissue in men with significant aesthetic and psychological repercussions. In some situations, it might be a symptom of an underlying condition. The management of gynecomastia is mainly based on an extensive etiological analysis made of an exhaustive endocrine assessment, and a radical or conservative adapted treatment allowing to obtain the best aesthetic result.

Through literature review some clinical cases, we establish different etiological, clinical aspects and management of gynecomastia.

Keywords: Adipose tissue, gynecomastia, glandular, liposuction, mastectomy, round block


Akgül S, Kanbur N, Derman O. Pubertal gynecomastia: what about the remaining 10%?. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014; 27(9-10): 1027-1028.

Kanakis GA, Nordkap L, Bang AK, Calogero AE, Bártfai G, Corona G, et al. EAA clinical practice guidelines—gynecomastia evaluation and management. Andrology. 2014.

Baumann K. Gynecomastia - Conservative and Surgical Management. Breast Care. 2018; 13: 419-424.

Bailey SH, Guenther D, Constantine F, Rohrich RJ. Gynecomastia management: an evolution and refinement in technique at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2016; 4: e734.

Pacenza NA, Aszpis SM, Suárez SM, Pragier UM, Usher JGS, Vásquez Cayoja M, Iturrieta S, et al. Clinical and Etiological Aspects of Gynecomastia in Adult Males: A Multicenter Study. BioMed Research International. 2018: 8364824–8364827.

Harold E. Carlson, Approach to the Patient with Gynecomastia. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2011; 96(1): 15-21.

Oh YH, Lee SH. Liposuction Using Wall Suction and Portable Suction in the Treatment of Gynecomastia. Indian Journal of Surgery. 2021: 1-7.

Whitehead IJ, Fernandes L, Haris O, Chagla L. Gynaecomastia: a cosmetic concern or a concerning clinical sign?. The Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England 2010; 101(8): e184-e186.

Bailey SH, Guenther D, Constantine F, Rohrich RJ. Gynecomastia Management. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open. 2016; 4(6): e734.

Reinehr T, Kulle A, Barth A, Ackermann J, Lass N, Holterhus PM. Sex Hormone Profile in Pubertal Boys With Gynecomastia and Pseudogynecomastia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020; 105(4).


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Karti, S., Jalal, A., Chfiri, A., El Harti, A., & Diouri, M. (2022). Gynecomastia Establishing Etiological, Clinical Aspects and Surgical Management. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 4(2), 7–9.

Most read articles by the same author(s)