Perinatal Anxiety and Depression (PAD) on COVID-19


  •   I. Made Darmayasa

  •   I. Ketut Sumarda

  •   Ida Ayu Kusuma Wardani

  •   Ni Ketut Sri Diniari


Pregnancy is a complex and dynamic experience where women undergo significant physiological and psychological changes. These changes can cause an increased risk of developing anxiety and depression in perinatal women. Depression usually starts during pregnancy or gets worse after delivery. These changes and uncertainties can cause fear, anxiety, and depression symptoms in women who may have experienced perinatal anxiety and depression, even in women with low risk. The fear of infectious disease or the potential effect that may harm the fetus or the newborn baby will cause harm and depression in this population. Four pregnant and postpartum women diagnosed with COVID-19 in this case series experienced perinatal anxiety and depression, major depression, and adjustment disorder with mixed reactions of anxiety and depression. Patients are given pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy. The pharmacological therapy was antidepressants and anti-anxiety, while the non-pharmacological therapy was given as supportive psychotherapy, relaxation therapy, and family psychoeducation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, psychotherapy was carried out using the telehealth method.

Keywords: COVID-19, perinatal anxiety and depression, telehealth


Liu X. Prenatal anxiety and obstetric decisions among pregnant women in Wuhan and Chongqing during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study. BJOG. 2020; 127: 1229–40.

Davenport M. Moms Are Not OK: COVID-19 and Maternal Mental Health Mental Health. Women's Ment Heal. 2020; 1: 1–6.

Chen H, Selix N, Nosek M. Perinatal Anxiety and Depression During Covid-19. J Nurse Pract. 2020; 1–23.

Kajdy A. Risk factors for anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020; 1–7.

Taubman O, Chasson M, Sharkia S, Weiss E. Distress and anxiety associated with COVID-19 among Jewish and Arab pregnant women in Israel. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2020; 38: 340–8.

Berghella V. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Pregnancy issues and antenatal care.

Stewart D, Vigod S. Postpartum Depression: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Emerging Therapeutics. Annu Rev Med. 2019; 70: 183–96.