Bartter syndrome is a rare renal tubular disease characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and renal salt wasting. There is paucity of report of this condition from Africa. We report a case of a four–year–old Nigerian boy who presented with growth failure, recurrent episodes of vomiting, features of severe dehydration and normal blood pressure warranting in–hospital care on several occasions over a period of 16 months. This patient had hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatraemia and hypercalciuria. He also had abdominal x-ray findings of a triangular-shaped calcific density in the right renal bed suggestive of right medullary nephrocalcinosis. Diagnosis of Bartter syndrome was confirmed by elevated plasma renin of 8.1ng/ml/hr (normal 0.5 – 5.9). The patient was managed with intravenous normal saline, potassium chloride infusion, calcium gluconate, and then oral potassium, calcium and magnesium supplements. Follow up at the clinic revealed significant weight gain and stable clinical state. A high index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis of this rare syndrome, particularly in children presenting with persistent vomiting, failure to thrive and dyselectrolytemia. This, invariably, will improve survival and health-related quality of life of such children, hence the need for this report.
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