Purpose: The study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of Alstonia congensis (leaf, bark and root) extracts on heamatology of albino rat.
Is the extract poisonous? What is the LD50 of the extract? Is the heamatology of the test animals affected by the extract? Is the effect dangerous for the animal?
Method: The study was carried out between February 2019 to October 2020. A. congensis was collected from Emekuku area of Imo State. The albino rats were purchased from the Animal Science and Production Department of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia. Acute toxicity studies of the crude extracts were carried out in albino mice. The possible effects of the extracts on hematology of the albino rats were determined using automated machine.
Results: In acute toxicity test, all the mice that received the doses (10, 100,1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg) of the extract survived beyond the 2weeks of observation. The medium lethal dose toxicity value (LD50) of the extract must be above 5000 mg/kg which indicates that the extract is safe for consumption. The extracts did exhibit some hematological changes, the packed cell volume (PCV) of the test animals were reduced. The RBC of the animals were reduced significantly when 800 mg/kg of bark extract was given, but no mortality was observed. The WBC and HB of the animals were affected but the effects were not significant. There was no evidence of drug-induced symptoms at all the doses of the extract administered.
Conclusion: The extract can be deleterious to the heamatological parameters of the test animal when used in high doses for a long period. Therefore, it is advisable to be used in chronic cases where orthodox medicine failed.
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