The unprecedented episode of the Covid-19 pandemic has been a massive shock to individuals all across the globe. Overwhelmed healthcare conditions, stringent lockdowns and plummeting economies have been a huge blow, especially for low- and middle-income countries. In the first phase of the pandemic, India had performed relatively better than most of the other nations in its income strata. However, the second wave of the disease had severe impacts on healthcare as well as the economy. In this light, individuals residing within the country were faced with an uphill task of evading the virus and keeping their mental health intact. This paper takes a dig into the mental health of Indian residents during the second wave of the pandemic (May 2021) through an analysis of a collected sample. The sample consisted of 400 participants (59% males, 40.25% females; mean age=26 years). The DASS-21 index was used to assess the mental state of citizens amidst an ongoing nationwide lockdown. A significant association was obtained between Covid-19, depression and overall DASS index. Thus, the importance of addressing mental health issues during a prevailing pandemic has been identified, and subsequent policy recommendations have been prescribed.
H. Ritchie, E. Ortiz-Ospina, D. Beltekian, E. Mathieu, J. Hasell, and B. Macdonald, “India: Coronavirus pandemic country profile”, 2021.
S. Jamkhandikar and D. Ghoshal, “Many Indians struggle to get coronavirus tests as cases rocket.” Reuters, Retrieved from: https://www.reuters.com/world/india/many-indians-struggle-get-coronavirus-tests-cases-rocket-2021-04-20/, (2021)
“The New India Express. Fear, stigma, laxity contribute to rising Covid-19 cases.” Retrieved from: https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/odisha/2021/may/11/fear-stigma-laxity-contribute-to-rising-covid-19-cases-2301129.html, 2021
M. Chaudhary, P. R. Sodani and S. Das S. “Effect of COVID-19 on Economy in India: Some Reflections for Policy and Programme.” Journal of Health Management. 22(2):169-180, 2020.
R. Rossi, V. Socci, D. Talevi, S. Mensi, C. Niolu, F. Pacitti and G. Di Lorenzo, “COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures impact on mental health among the general population in Italy.” Frontiers In Psychiatry 11, 790, 2020.
S. Das “Mental Health and Psychosocial Aspects of COVID-19 in India: The Challenges and Responses.” Journal of Health Management 22(2):197-205, 2020.
B. Dohrenwend and B. Dohrenwend “Perspectives on the past and future of psychiatric epidemiology. The 1981 Rema Lapouse Lecture.” American Journal Of Public Health 72, 1271–1279, 1982.
S. Grover, S. Sahoo, A. Mehra, A. Avasthi, A. Tripathi, A. Subramanyan and Y. J. Reddy “Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India.” Indian Journal Of Psychiatry 62, 354 2020.
C. Wang, R. Pan, X. Wan, Y. Tan, L. Xu, C. S. Ho and R. C. Ho, “Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China.” International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health 17, 1729, 2020.
Y. T. Xiang, Y. Yang, W. Li, L. Zhang, Q. Zhang, T. Cheung and C. H. Ng, “Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed.” Lancet Psychiatry 7(3):228–9, 2020.
S. K. Brooks, R. K. Webster, L. E. Smith, L. Woodland, S. Wessely, N. Greenberg and G. J. Rubin, “The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence.” Lancet 14;395(10227):912–20, 2020.
Y. Wang, B. Xu, G. Zhao, R. Cao, X. He and S. Fu “Is quarantine related to immediate negative psychological consequences during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic?” Gen Hosp Psychiatry 33(1):75–7, 2011.
G. J. Rubin and S. Wessely “The psychological effects of quarantining a city.” BMJ 368:m313, 2020.
Y. Neria and G. M. Sullivan, “Understanding the mental health effects of indirect exposure to mass trauma through the media.” JAMA 306(12):1374–5, 2011.
J. Shigemura, R. J. Ursano, J. C. Morganstein, M. Kurosawa and D. M. Benedek, “Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: mental health consequences and target populations.” Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 74(4):281, 2020.
T. G van Tilburg, S. Steinmetz, E. Stolte, H. van der Roest and D. H. de Vries, “Loneliness and Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Study Among Dutch Older Adults”, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 76(7), e249–e255, 2021.
A. Abbott. “COVID's mental-health toll: how scientists are tracking a surge in depression.” Nature 590, 194-195. 2021.
A. Shankar, A. McMunn, J. Banks and A. Steptoe, “Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults.” Health Psychology 30(4), 377–385. 2011.
A. Gopal, A. J. Sharma and M. A. Subramanyam, “Dynamics of psychological responses to COVID-19 in India: A longitudinal study.” PLoS ONE 15(10): e0240650. 2020.
S. Nigam, “COVID-19: India's Response to Domestic Violence Needs Rethinking.” South Asia Journal 2020.
S. H. Lovibond and P. F. Lovibond, “Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.” Sydney Psychology Foundation Australia 1996.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.