Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top global public health issues. After the pandemic of corona virus 2019 (COVID-19), AMR became a challenging complex that needs to be addressed during the corona pandemic.
Objectives: Evaluating the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) before and during COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted at Armed Forces Hospital Jazan, Saudi Arabia using positive cultures` results from microbiology department.
Results: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent microorganisms isolated from the patients. E. coli was the most isolated organism from patients with infections such as: COVID-19 fever, sepsis, urinary tract infections and wound infection. There was no significant change between 2019 and 2020 regarding AMR prevalence.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the AMR before and during the COVID-19 era thus other large population studies must be conducted to evaluate worldwide evolution of AMR during COVID-19 pandemic.
M. Dryden, A. P. Johnson, D. Ashiru-Oredope and M. Sharland, "Using antibiotics responsibly: right drug, right time, right dose, right duration," The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 66(11):2441-3, 2011. doi:10.1093/jac/dkr370.
T. M. Rawson, D. Ming, R. Ahmad, L. S. P. Moore and A. H. Holmes, "Antimicrobial use, drug-resistant infections and COVID-19," Nature Reviews Microbiology 18(8):409-10, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41579-020-0395-y.
T. M. Rawson, L. S. P. Moore, E. Castro-Sanchez, E. Charani, F. Davies, G. Satta and A. H. Holmes, "COVID-19 and the potential long-term impact on antimicrobial resistance," The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 75(7):1681-4, 2020. doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa194.
M. A. B. Lucien, M. F. Canarie, P. E. Kilgore, G. Jean-Denis, N. Fénélon, M. Pierre, and B. Roman Pardo, "Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in the COVID-19 era: Perspective from resource-limited settings," International journal of infectious diseases 104:250-4, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.087.
D. L. Monnet and S. Harbarth "Will coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have an impact on antimicrobial resistance?" Euro Surveill 25(45):2001886, 2020. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.45.2001886.
D. van Duin, G. Barlow and D. Nathwani, "The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial resistance: a debate," JAC Antimicrob Resist 2(3):dlaa053-dlaa, 2020. doi:10.1093/jacamr/dlaa053.
R. Kohlmann and S. G. Gatermann, "Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data--The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory," PloS one 11(1):e0147965-e, 2016. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147965.
CLSI.Performance standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.31st ed. CLSI supplement M100. Clinical and laboratory standards Institute;2021.
H. O. Ukuhor, "The interrelationships between antimicrobial resistance, COVID-19, past, and future pandemics," J Infect Public Health 14(1):53-60, 2021.
L. Fattorini, R. Creti, C. Palma and A. Pantosti, "Bacterial coinfections in COVID-19: an underestimated adversary," 56:359-64, 2020. doi: 10.4415/ANN_20_03_14.
L. Lansbury, B. Lim, V. Baskaran and W. S. Lim, "Co-infections in people with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis," Journal of Infection 81(2):266-75, 2020.
B. Gasperini, A. Cherubini, M. Lucarelli, E. Espinosa and E. Prospero, "Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections in Geriatric Hospitalized Patients before and after the COVID-19 Outbreak: Results from a Retrospective Observational Study in Two Geriatric Wards," Antibiotics 10(1), 95, 2021. doi:10.3390/antibiotics10010095.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.