Association of Foods with Hypertension: A Call for Action


  •   Khubaib Samdani

  •   Faiz Rasool

  •   Saad Azhar

  •   Zarish Akhtar

  •   Sarmad Hassan

  •   Tayyab Mumtaz Khan

  •   Sana Mansoor

  •   Madeeha Mumtaz

  •   Sharukh Khan


Hypertension (HTN) is a very prevalent health issue around the world. Many factors influence HTN and some of those include diabetes, obesity, gender, age, and diet. Impact of diet on hypertension, is understudied in our region, therefore, this study was set to manifest the effect of diet on HTN prevalence. This cross-sectional study was performed among local Islamabad of population, Pakistan in 3 months from November 2019 to January 2020. 138 people were recruited in study via a developed criterion. Data was collected by self-designed proforma. Data analysis was done by applying IBM SPSS version 25. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative variables. As data was non-parametric, so we applied non-parametric statistical tests like Mann Whitney test, Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman correlation analysis were applied to assess, the difference in means of both systolic and diastolic BP between female and male, difference in means of both systolic and diastolic BP among three consumption frequency levels, and association, direction, and strength of between HTN and foods consumption. Present study indicates overall high prevalence of HTN (39.86%) among study population. Means of age, systolic and diastolic BP for study population were 43.42 (with SD of ±8.30) years, 138.01mmHg (with SD of ±19.37), and 89.38mmHg (with SD of ±7.10) respectively. Difference in means of both systolic and diastolic between females and males was not significant (p=0.093 and p=0.078 respectively) although these were higher among males and gender was not associated with HTN significantly (p=0.069). Strength and direction for association between fast food and HTN was strong and positive, for association between snack food and HTN was strong and positive while for association between fresh fruits and raw vegetables was strong and negative with correlation coefficients (+0.690 for diastolic, +0.710 for systolic), (+0.651 for diastolic, +0.661 for systolic), (-0.712 for diastolic, -0.712 for systolic) respectively. In short, present study concludes that HTN was more prevalent among males, fast food, snack foods eaters and fresh fruits and raw vegetables non-eater in contrast to females, fresh fruits and raw vegetables eaters and non-eaters of fast foods and snack foods. Higher consumption of fast foods and snack lead to higher prevalence of HTN and vice versa whereas higher consumption of fresh fruits and raw vegetables bring decline in the incidence of HTN incidence and vice versa. So, we are dependent on awareness among people about the influence of food on HTN and gender specific measures for each gender to reduce HTN incidence.

Keywords: Action, association, call, foods, hypertension


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