European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 2593-8339 Effect of Diode Laser on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Stromal Derived Factor – 1 Alpha Level in Chronic Periodontitis Patients- A Randomized Clinical Trial <p><em>Background</em>: SDF-1α may be involved in the immune defense pathway activated during periodontal disease. Upon development of disease, SDF-1α levels increase and may recruit host defensive cells into sites of inflammation. This suggests that SDF-1α may be a useful biomarker for the identification of periodontal disease progression. Previous studies suggested that diode laser using as an adjunct to SRP in clinical and biochemical benefits.</p> <p><em>Aims and objectives</em>: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of diode laser on gingival crevicular fluid stromal derived factor – 1 alpha (SDF-1α) level in chronic generalized periodontitis patients.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Materials and methods</em>: A total of 30 patients were divided in two groups based on inclusion and exclusion criteria as follows: Group 1:&nbsp; 15 chronic generalized periodontitis patients who received treatment with scaling and root planing. Group 2: 15 chronic generalized periodontitis patients who received treatment with scaling and root planing and diode laser. Each GCF samples were collected at baseline, 15 days and 21 days after treatment. Clinical parameters like gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded and GCF samples also collected.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: All the clinical parameters (GI, PPD, CAL) and the concentration of SDF-1α level in GCF were found to be significantly reduced in the group 2 compared to group 1 after 21 days. The mean values of GI, PPD, CAL parameters at different time intervals was found statistically significant in both the groups (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: Within the limitations of the present study, we conclude that diode laser used as an adjunct to SRP provides greater improvement in clinical and biochemical benefits over conventional mechanical treatment during medium term of observation.</p> Rakesh M.P. Krishna Kripal Deepthi R. Sandeep S. Prabhu Shanmugapriya P.A. Copyright (c) 2019 Rakesh M.P., Krishna Kripal, Deepthi R., Sandeep S. Prabhu, Shanmugapriya P.A. 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.92 Effect of Diode Laser on Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein - Barr Virus in Chronic Periodontitis Patients – A Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Study <p>Background and aims: Studies have investigated the occurrence of Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) in samples of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis lesions and their role in the pathogenesis of the disease have been suggested. It is important to determine the role and presence of these viruses in chronic generalized periodontitis patients after Scaling and root planing (SRP) alone and in conjunction with diode laser application. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein–Barr virus(EBV) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples obtained from chronic generalised periodontitis patients.</p> <p>Materials (Subjects) and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria as follows: Group I – 15 chronic generalized periodontitis patients who received treatment with scaling and root planing. Group II – 15 chronic generalized periodontitis patients who received treatment with scaling and root planing and Diode laser. In each patient GCF samples were collected at baseline, 7 days and 21 days after treatment. Clinical parameters like gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were recorded and as GCF samples collected.</p> <p>Results: Correlation between quantification of EBV values with clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in two groups showed statistical significance (P &lt; 0.001). Relative quantification of EBV was statistically significant, whereas HCMV was significantly absent. The mean values of GI, PPD and CAL parameters at different time interval was found to be statistically significant in both group (P &lt; 0.001)</p> <p>Conclusions: Only EBV was detected more frequently in patients with CGP, but HCMV was not detected with similar frequency in the groups studied. We also found that group with application of diode laser showed statistical significant results.</p> Sandeep S. Prabhu Krishna Kripal Deepthi R. Rakesh M.P. Manjunath S.M. Shanmugapriya P. Copyright (c) 2019 Sandeep S. Prabhu, Krishna Kripal, Deepthi R., Rakesh M.P., Manjunath S.M., Shanmugapriya P. 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.93 Storage Media – A review <p>Management protocol for avulsed teeth includes the maintenance of viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells for good prognosis and long-term survival of these teeth. The desirable treatment is immediate replacement and replantation of the avulsed tooth but it cannot always be accomplished for a number of reasons. Thus, the tooth should be transported in a suitable storage medium to maintain the cell viability. Considering the critical role of these media, an informed choice of a suitable medium is essential for a favourable outcome. This review paper focuses on the various storage media available and highlights their specific features or drawbacks.</p> Soundarya Vishwanathan Nandan N. Sunil Raj N Anitha C Manjushree Rajappa Copyright (c) 2019 Soundarya Vishwanathan, Nandan N., Sunil Raj N, Anitha C, Manjushree Rajappa 2019-11-22 2019-11-22 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.82 Study of the Biological Effects of the Aqueous Extract of the Flower of Target Taraxacum officinale on Escherichia coli AB1157 <p>The present study shows the results obtained by the disc-diffusion test, where the actions of the aqueous extract of the flower of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> on the strain <em>Escherichia coli</em> AB1157 was evaluated and compared with the results of the aqueous extract of <em>Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi</em>. It can be observed that the extract of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> presented greater significance in relation to inhibition of bacterial growth than the extract of <em>Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi</em>, suggesting to the extract of <em>Taraxacum officinale</em> a greater and better clinical relevance.</p> Faria T. C. Nascimento C.C. H.C. Vasconcelos S. D. D. De. Stephens P. R. S. Saranraj P. Barreto A. S. Glaucio Dire Copyright (c) 2019 Faria T. C., Nascimento C.C. H.C., Vasconcelos S. D. D. De., Stephens P. R. S., Saranraj P., Barreto A. S., Glaucio Dire 2019-11-23 2019-11-23 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.98 Seroprevalence and Real-time PCR Detection of Brucellosis in Abattoirs Animals as a Potential Route of Infection in Egypt <p>Brucellosis is among the most common and economically serious zoonosis worldwide. Brucellosis in Egypt is an endemic problem among animals and humans. This work intended to evaluate the conventional serological and molecular approaches as a tool for studying the prevalence of brucellosis within abattoir’s animals in two large Egyptian provinces.&nbsp; Two hundred and thirty (n=230) blood and serum samples were collected&nbsp; from (2-3) years male calves in two Egyptian abattoirs. Rose Bengal&nbsp; test (RBT) and modified in-house ELISA were&nbsp; applied&nbsp; to determine the seroprevalence of&nbsp; Brucellosis&nbsp; in abattoirs animals while quantitative Taqman real-time PCRs (RT-PCR) were implemented for the characterization of Brucella species. The overall prevalence of brucellosis&nbsp; in the two proveinces was (53.9 %) , (75.2 %) and (79.1 %) as determined by ELISA ,RBT and RT- PCR assays respectively. Brucella DNA was successfully amplified from serum samples as well as blood. A total of n= 182 samples (79.1 %) were identified by real time PCR amplification for IS711 gene as Brucella genus, n= 118 (64.8 %) were reported as B. aborts while n= 85 (46.7 %) were reported as B. melitensis. N= 44 (24.17 %) from the collected samples comprised the two species of bacteria. This study endorses the application of rose Bengal test as a sensitive and cost effective&nbsp; serological test for brucellosis and real-time PCR as a distinguishing tool to detect the causative agents. Our findings indicate a significantly high prevalence of <em>Brucella&nbsp; </em>antibodies and DNA in blood and serum samples&nbsp; which poses a crucial&nbsp; threat to public health in Egypt.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amira Mohamed Zakaria Salwa F. Ahmed Mohamed S. Motawae Copyright (c) 2019 Amira Mohamed Zakaria, Salwa F. Ahmed, Mohamed S. Motawae 2019-11-23 2019-11-23 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.105 High Glycosylated Haemoglobin Increase Prevalence of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy <p>Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus (DM). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is an indicator that reflects the percentage of blood glucose tied to hemoglobin for the past three months. This study aims to determine if a high level of HbA1c increases the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Cross-sectional study. The participants were DM patients who were diagnosed with PDR and NPDR for the first time and HbA1c level was checked in the laboratory. Of the 74 participants, 37 participants were PDR, and 37 participants were NPDR. The ratio of prevalence (PR) was 3.87, with Confident of Interval (CI 95%): 1.96-7.67 and p &lt; 0.001. Multivariate analysis shows Odd Ratio (OR) of HbA1c is 18.319 (5.334-62.919) and p &lt; 0.001. High level of HbA1c as a risk factor of high prevalence of PDR.</p> Ni Made Ari Suryathi I Putu Budhiastra I W.G. Jayanegara Copyright (c) 2019 Ni Made Ari Suryathi, I Putu Budhiastra, I W.G. Jayanegara 2019-11-24 2019-11-24 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.103 Using the Fasting Blood Sugar and Glycated Haemoglobin Models for Predicting the Personal Management of Type-2 Diabetes <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>Personal management of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is very important in preventing complications of other diseases for infected patients. We aimed to develop the mathematical models for predicting the performance of personal T2DM management.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>We proposed three hypotheses as the basic principles to develop the fasting blood sugar (FBS) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) models. We tested and validated these two models using the FBS and HbA1c data collected from two clinical laboratories in Malaysia and one clinical laboratory in Indonesia from 16 March 2009 to 29 May 2016.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Using the power FBS model permits us to predict the FBS level of below 6 mmol/L after 1277 days of the T2DM management. Using the logarithmic HbA1c model permits to predict the HbA1c level in blood of below 6.4% after 2553 days of the T2DM management but never reaches below 6%. We verified that correlation between the FBS and HbA1c data is able to get an excellent fit with linear regression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Person with T2DM can set goals for managing his disease and lifetime metabolic control to get better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and should pay attention to the main determinants of HRQoL. Using the FBS and HbA1c models as strategic analysis tool permits us to predict the effectiveness of T2DM management with an ultimate improvement in his quality of life to take care of himself.</p> Tahira Fulazzaky Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky Copyright (c) 2019 Tahira Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky 2019-11-27 2019-11-27 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.108 Abcès Prostatique: About a Case <p>We report the case of a prostate abscess in a diabetic and hypertensive patient followed for benign prostatic hypertrophy. The treatment consisted on the evacuation of the abscess by transrectal puncture associated with targeted antibiotic therapy.</p> Walid Bai Mehdi Graouid Mohamed Dakir Adil Debbagh Rachid Aboutaieb Copyright (c) 2019 Walid Bai, Mehdi Graouid, Mohamed Dakir, Adil Debbagh, Rachid Aboutaieb 2019-11-29 2019-11-29 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.99 Preeclampsia Complicated by Antenatal and Postnatal Ascitis <p>Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are an important cause of severe acute feto-maternal morbidity, lasting disability and mortality. In Africa, about one-tenth of all maternal deaths are associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The majority of deaths attributable to preeclampsia can be circumvented by instituting appropriate and effective care to women presenting with complications one of which is ascitis. Ascitis can lead to dehydration, respiratory failure, heart failure and thromboembolism</p> Peter Waibode Alabrah John Agbo Eni-yimini Solomon Agoro Copyright (c) 2019 Peter Waibode Alabrah, John Agbo, Eni-yimini Solomon Agoro 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.106 Fear of Cigarette Smoke and the Brain Reaction on Nicotine <p>&nbsp;Nicotine addiction is categorized as severe addiction immediately behind heroin. The third place on the list is cocaine addiction, followed by alcohol, etc. Nicotine is a powerful psychoactive substance that disrupts bio-cell processes and changes behavior. It causes dependence on smokers, but tar is a highly potent killing substance. Therefore, in 1965 the US Congress passed a law on mandatory health warning stickers on tobacco packs. Numerous studies have shown that the health warning does not affect the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked, contrary to this warning motivates smokers to light-up a new cigarette. What actually happens in the smoker's heads and why? s the health warning a subtly designed subliminal message, or is its opposite effect a consequence of the brain filtration mechanism, or is it simply a synergy of the above-mentioned phenomena?</p> Branislav R. Tanasic Copyright (c) 2019 Branislav R. Tanasic 2019-12-02 2019-12-02 1 5 10.24018/ejmed.2019.1.5.110