European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences http://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 2593-8339 The progress towards achieving the UNAIDS ambitious viral suppression target among adults living with HIV in South-Western Nigeria http://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/126 <p><strong>Background</strong>: In sub-Saharan Africa where genotypic drug resistance testing is rarely performed and poor adherence is blamed for the inability to achieve viral suppression and treatment failure, programmatic approaches to preventing &amp; handling these are thus essential. Hypothesis tested was antiretroviral therapy adherence effect on viral load outcome. This study was aimed at determining and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression using viral load to provide prognostic information and evaluate patients for viral suppression using the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was an observational study of subjects living with HIV already initiated on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, enrolled in health facilities across Ondo State, South-Western Nigeria, during a 12-month observation period starting October 2018 till September 2019. Quantitative viral load analysis was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction, Roche Cobas Taqman 96 Analyzer. All data were statistically analyzed, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), with multiple comparisons done using Post Hoc Bonferonni test. <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 8124 (1947 males &amp; 6177 females) subjects eligible for the study were recruited. Most of them are in the age range of 35 – 39 years, with a mean age of 42.02 ± 10.88 years. 7162 (88.2%) &amp; 1771 (21.8%) of the subjects had viral suppression of &lt;1000 RNA copies per ml and &lt;20 RNA copies per ml respectively. The unsuppressed subjects went through enhanced adherence counselling (EAC) for three months and viral load test repeated thereafter. 192 patients who had completed the three sessions of EAC and repeated viral load increased the entire suppression numbers to 7339 (90.3%) &amp; 1824 (22.5%) &lt;1000 RNA copies per ml and &lt;20 RNA copies per ml respectively during the period of observation. ART adherence has significant effect on viral load outcome from the study hypothesis tested.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Current ART regimen &amp; HIV treatment enhanced adherence counseling are key to the achieving viral suppression, thus, routine viral load monitoring will ultimately help in HIV/AIDS disease progression follow up and reduce treatment failure tendencies. This will help more patients stay on first line regimen and prolong their life expectancy, indicating that the UNAIDS last 90 target is achievable.</p> Saheed Opeyemi Usman Adetosoye Adebanjo Anuri Emeh Ererosanaga Ogboghodo Babatunde Akinbinu Chisom Udechukwu Jennifer Ale Chiedozi Akueshi Emmanuel Fatunsi Abimbola Ariyo Adijat Suraju Ekene Anugha Patrick Akande Femi Owolagba Toyin Jolayemi Prosper Okonkwo Copyright (c) 2020 Saheed Opeyemi Usman, Adetosoye Adebanjo, Babatunde Ankinbinu, Chisom Udechukwu, Jennifer Ale, Ererosanaga Ogboghodo, Anuri Emeh, Chiedozi Akueshi, Emmanuel Fatunsi, Abimbola Ariyo, Adijat Suraju, Ekene Anugha, Femi Owolagba, Patrick Akande, Toyin Jolayemi, Prosper Okonkwo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-12 2020-01-12 2 1 10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.1.126 Air Quality Toxicity Index (AQTI): Quantifying Air Pollution Impact on Disease Onset http://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/143 <p>Air pollution impacts 90% of the world's population and is the number one cause of premature deaths worldwide, etiamted at 8-10 million pre year. Breathing polluted air is associated with the accelerated onset of numerous illnesses, including respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, several cancers and Alzheimer's disease. Fice major pollutants are typically monitored in cities around the world for air quality. These include ozone, particulate matter, dulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The Air Quality Toxicity Index (AQTI), that is first reported here, provides a quantitative indicator with which to monitor air quality, make air quality comparisons of different locations and compare air quality of the same locations as a function of time.</p> Harold I Zeliger Copyright (c) 2020 Harold I Zeliger http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-16 2020-01-16 2 1 10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.1.143 A Review of Prevalence and Pattern of Intestinal Parasites in Nigeria (2006-2015) http://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/139 <p>Intestinal worm infestation has become a global health problem and still highly prevalent in the tropical region. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections form the most important group of intestinal worms affecting two billion people worldwide, causing considerable morbidity and suffering, though largely preventable.</p> <p>Spatial distribution of helminth infections across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria identified the following helminthes; <em>Ascaris lumbricoides,</em> hookworm, <em>Trichuris trichiura, S. stercoralis,</em> <em>Taenia </em>sp,<em> S. mansoni</em>,<em> S. stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis </em>and<em> Hymenolopis nana</em>. This study revealed that prevalence of intestinal helminth in the country has not declined since the 1970s. <em>Ascaris lumbricoides </em>was the most prevalent helminth in the Southwestern (21%) and South-southern (13%) parts of Nigeria. Hookworm was the most prevalent helminth infection in the Southeastern (19%) while multiple infections were highly prevalent in Northern Nigeria (25% in North-central and 19% in the Northeast and Northwest, respectively). Cases of <em>Taenia sp</em> and <em>Schistosoma mansoni </em>infections were high in the Northeast and Northwest of Nigeria (8% and 6%, respectively).</p> <p>Nigeria has benefited from the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programme for over thirty years in the aspects of enhanced capacity building for applying personal hygiene and sanitation, improved water sources and provision of sanitation facilities and the National Emergency Group for coordination of emergency preparedness and response for WASH-related diseases. WHO estimated that more than 9% of the disease burden and 6% of deaths could be prevented by improving the WASH intervention programme. Children suffer the most, as 25% of global mortality of children (1 month<em>–</em>14 years) was linked with unsafe water and inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene, which was polarized in developing countries. To overcome challenge of WASH-related diseases, improved hygiene practices are essential. It is therefore important to sensitize people on the importance of water and sanitation practices through hygiene education. For effectiveness, hygiene education should be incorporated into the curriculum of schools from primary to tertiary institutions.</p> Oluwatobiloba Ibukunoluwa Funso-Aina Henry Nnaemeka Chineke Prosper Obunikem Adogu Copyright (c) 2020 Funsho-Aina Oluwatobiloba Ibukunoluwa, Henry Nnaemeka Chineke, Prosper Obunikem Adogu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-16 2020-01-16 2 1 10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.1.139 Patient Waiting Time: Gaps And Determinants Of Patients Waiting Time In Hospitals In Our Communities To Receive Quality Services http://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/136 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Patient waiting time has been recognized as an important indicator for determining the quality of healthcare services offered by health facilities. Waiting time is strongly related to patients’ satisfaction with the care received at the hospital in general.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in February 2018 among new patients attending general out-patient department (GOPD) of randomly selected hospitals in South-Western Nigeria. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit information from 223 patients who were recruited into the study using a convenience sampling method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The average total clinic waiting time (TCWT) from entry to seeing a medical doctor was 137.02 ± 53.64 minutes. Only 6 (2.7%) met the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendation of having at least 90% of patients seen within 30 minutes of their scheduled appointment in contrast to 193 (86.5%) of respondents desiring to wait not more than 30 minutes for whatever reason before been attended to by the doctor. Although, the level of satisfaction was high (81.2%) in this study, patients who waited longer (&gt;180 min) are more likely to be dissatisfied with services rendered in the OPDs (χ² = 20.104, df = 1, P = 0.001). Factors such as few health personnel (81/120) and having an insurance cover contributed significantly to the waiting time (χ² = 19.54, df = 1, P = 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In a competitively managed health care environment, patient waiting time play an increasingly important role in a clinic’s ability to attract new business. Efforts therefore, should be made not only to reduce the patient waiting time, but health managers should invest in resources and activities that ensure a productive use of the time patients spend in the process of seeking healthcare services.</p> Saheed Opeyemi Usman E. Olowoyeye O. J. Adegbamigbe G. P. Olubayo A. A. Ibijola A. B. Tijani I. N. Usman O. J. Fatunmbi T. C. Omisakin T. Ipinmoye Copyright (c) 2020 Saheed Opeyemi Usman, E. Olowoyeye, O. J. Adegbamigbe, G. P. Olubayo, A. A. Ibijola, A. B. Tijani, I. N. Usman, O. J. Fatunmbi, T. C. Omisakin, T. Ipinmoye http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-16 2020-01-16 2 1 10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.1.136 Single Renal Metastasis From Cervical Cancer http://ejmed.org/index.php/ejmed/article/view/150 <p>63-year-old patient, followed for cervical cancer classified 2b; declared cured after a treatment with chemo-radiotherapy and brachytherapy and who presents after 10 months of his last treatment session a fortuitous discovery of a right renal mass The patient subsequently benefited from a right enlarged total nephrectomy whose anatomo study pathology showed the appearance of a secondary epidermoid carcinoma of cervical neo.</p> <p>In our case, there is a single renal metastasis of cervical cancer with no local development and after 10 months from the end of treatment.</p> Youssef Ghannam Oussama Elidrissi H. Moudlige M. Dakir A. Debbagh R. Aboutaieb Copyright (c) 2020 Youssef Ghannam, Oussama Elidrissi, H. Moudlige, M. Dakir, A. Debbagh, R. Aboutaieb http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 2 1 10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.1.150