Assessment of Fluid Intake Pattern in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria


  •   Christian Chiibuzo Ibeh

  •   Nonyelum Nnenna Jisieike-Onuigbo

  •   Fidelia Obiageli Emelumadu

  •   Chigozie Ozoemena Ifeadike

  •   Mary Jane Umeh

  •   Christian Ejike Onah

  •   Ahoma Victor Mbanuzuru

  •   Darlington C. Obi

  •   Chukwuanugo Nkemakonam Ogbuagu


Background: Water is essential for life and accounts for about 70 percent of the human body fat-free mass. Daily loss of 2.5 L in temperate climate occurs on least minimal activity while exercises, rises in temperature, illnesses raise the fluid loss. Adequate intake of water is necessary for optimal body functions, development and health. Estimates of water intake shows wide variations depending on factors such as temperature, activity level, availability and accessibility of fluid, fluid type, packaging, and socio-cultural factors.

Context and purpose of study: Residents in the tropics are exposed to high temperatures and loss of excess fluid from perspiration and would expectedly require high fluid intake for normal body function. A cross sectional study was conducted in Aanmbra State, southeast Nigeria to assess the fluid intake of subjects. Two hundred and fifty people were selected by multi-stage sampling technique. They were drawn from employees in government secretariats, banks and artisans engaged in motor mechanic worksites. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, calibrated plastic cups, weighing scale and standiometer, the socio-demographic data, the 24-hour fluid intake, weight and height of the subjects were obtained.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 36.6±11.5 years. 60.1% (146) were males while 39.9% (97) were females. There were 130 (53.5%) civil servants and 113 (46.5%) artisans. The median 24-hour fluid intake was 3.5 litres with artisans having higher intake than the civil servants. (χ2 =16.57, df=2, p<0.05). The median fluid intake for males was 3.8 litres compared with 3.1 L for females.

Main findings: Less than one quarter of the subjects met the respective WHO recommendations for males and females. About half (47.9%) of the males and 39.2% of the females failed to meet the USA IOM recommendations.

Conclusions: The subjects drank less fluid than people in temperate climes and below international recommendations for moderate activities and for manual labour in high temperatures.

Brief summary and potential implications: Inadequate intake of fluid lead to reduced work/exercise performance, endanger health resulting in impaired cognition, kidney diseases, cardiovascular disorders and dysfunction in blood sugar regulation.

Keywords: fluid intake; water-intake; high temperatures.


E. Jéquier and F. Constant, Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration. Eur J Clin Nutr, vol. 64, pp. 115–123, Feb. 2010.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes For Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, And Sulfate. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2005, pp. 74-75.

A.C. Grandjean, Water requirements, impinging factors, and recommended intakes. The Centre for Human Nutrition, University of Nebraska Omaha, Nebraska- USA, 2009, pp. 25 – 40. Availlable:

Metabolic Water. Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3rd ed; Elsevier Inc, 2007 .

S. M. Shirreffs. The importance of good hydration for work and exercise performance. Nutrition Reviews, vol. 63,S pp. 14-21, 2005.

T. Westrell, Y. Andersson and T.A. Stenström, Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden, J Water Health, vol.4, no. 4, 511-22. Dec. 2006.

A. C. Grandjean, K. J. Reimers, M. C. Haven and G. L. Curtis, The effect on hydration of two diets, one with and one without plain water. JACN, vol, 22, no. 2 pp. 165-173, 2003.

A. C. Grandjean, K. J. Reimers, K. E. Bannick and Haven MC, The effect of caffeinated, non-caffeinated, caloric and non-caloric beverages on hydration. JACN, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 591-600, 2000.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Estimated Per Capita Water Ingestion In The United States - an update based on data collected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994–1997 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/822/R-00/001, 2004.

M. N. Sawka and S. J. Montain, Fluid and electrolyte balance: effects on thermoregulation and exercise in the heat. In: B. A. Bowman and R. M. Russell, editors. Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Washington, DC: ILSI Press, 2001, pp. 115-124.

G. Howard and J. Bartram, Domestic Water Quantity, Service, Level And Health. World Health Organization, Ref Type: Report, 2003.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes For Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, And Sulfate. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005, ch. 4, pp. 140-47.

A. Drewnowski, C. D. Rehm and F. Constant. Water and beverage consumption among adults in the United States: Cross-sectional study using data from NHANES 2005–2010. BMC Public Health, vol. 13, 1068, 2013.

World Health Organization. Guidelines For Drinking-Water Quality. 4th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011, 164–8.

National Population Commission, Abuja Nigeria, Population Distribution By Sex, State, LGAs and Senatorial District, 2006 Census Priority Tables, 2006, vol. 3.

Awka Monthly Climate Averages, Anambra, NG. Available:

Nnewi Monthly Climate Averages, Anambra, NG. Available:

J. Charan and T. Biswas. How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research? Indian J Psychol Med, vol. 35, no. 2, 121–126, Apr-Jun 2013.

E. T. Perrier, I. Buendia-Jimenez, M. Vecchio, L. E. Armstrong, I. Tack and A. Klein. Twenty-four-hour urine osmolality as a physiological index of adequate water intake. Dis Markers, 2015: 231063. Available:

J. L. Warren, W. E. Bacon, T. Harris, A. M. McBean, D. J. Foley and C. Phillips, The burden and outcomes associated with dehydration among US elderly, 1991. Am J Public Health, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 1265-1269, 1994

J. Dimant, Delivery of nutrition and hydration care in nursing homes: assessment and interventions to prevent and treat dehydration, malnutrition, and weight loss, J Am Med Dir Assoc, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 175–182, 2001.

S. Hamilton, Detecting dehydration and malnutrition in the elderly, Nursing (Lond), vol. 31(12):56–57, 2001.

Greenleaf JE. Problem: thirst, drinking behavior, and involuntary dehydration. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(6):645–656.

Johnson AK. The sensory psychobiology of thirst and salt appetite. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1388–1400.

Pross N., Demazières A., Girard N., Barnouin R., Metzger D., Klein A., Perrier E., Guelinckx I. Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94754. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094754.

Johnson E.C., Muñoz C.X., Jimenez L., Le Bellego L., Kupchak B.R., Kraemer W.J., Casa D.J., Maresh C.M., Armstrong L.E. Hormonal and thirst modulated maintenance of fluid balance in young women with different levels of habitual fluid consumption. Nutrients. 2016;8:302. doi: 10.3390/nu8050302.

Maughan R.J., Watson P., Cordery P.A., Walsh N.P., Oliver S.J., Dolci A., Rodriguez-Sanchez N., Galloway S.D. A randomized trial to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: Development of a beverage hydration index. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2016;103:717–723.

Stookey J.D., Hamer J., Killilea D.W. Change in hydration indices associated with an increase in total water intake of more than 0.5 L/day, sustained over 4 weeks, in healthy young men with initial total water intake below 2 L/day. Physiol. Rep. 2017.

R J Maughan, J B Leiper, S M Shirreffs. Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat. BrJ Spors Med 1997;31:175-182

Lawrence E. Armstrong, Evan C. Johnson, Laura J. Kunces, Matthew S. Ganio, Daniel A. Judelson, Brian R. Kupchak, Jakob L. Vingren, CSCS, Colleen X. Munoz, Robert A. Huggins, Jay R. Hydren, Nicole E. Moyen, Keith H. Williamson. Drinking to Thirst Versus Drinking Ad Libitum During Road Cycling. J Athl Train. 2014 Sep-Oct; 49(5): 624–631.

G. C. Curhan, W. C. Willett, E. L. Knight, and M. J. Stampfer, “Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in younger women: Nurses’ Health study II,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 8, pp. 885–891, 2004.

M. Dai, A. Zhao, A. Liu, L. You, and P. Wang, “Dietary factors and risk of kidney stone: a case-control study in southern China,” Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. e21–e28, 2013.

M. D. Sorensen, A. J. Kahn, A. P. Reiner et al., “Impact of nutritional factors on incident kidney stone formation: a report from the WHI OS,” Journal of Urology, vol. 187, no. 5, pp. 1645– 1649, 2012.

W. F. Clark, J. M. Sontrop, J. J. Macnab et al., “Urine volume and change in estimated GFR in a community-based cohort study,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 2634–2641, 2011.

J. M. Sontrop, S. N. Dixon, A. X. Garg et al., “Association between water intake, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data,” The American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 434–442, 2013.

G. F. M. Strippoli, J. C. Craig, E. Rochtchina, V. M. Flood, J. J. Wang, and P. Mitchell, “Fluid and nutrient intake and risk of chronic kidney disease,” Nephrology (Carlton), vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 326–334, 2011.

R. Roussel, L. Fezeu, N. Bouby et al., “Low water intake and risk for new-onset hyperglycemia,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2551–2554, 2011.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Ibeh, C., Jisieike-Onuigbo, N., Emelumadu, F., Ifeadike, C., Umeh, M., Onah, C., Mbanuzuru, A., Obi, D., & Ogbuagu, C. (2020). Assessment of Fluid Intake Pattern in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 2(3).