Pericardial effusion is the accumulation of fluid between the layers of the pericardium. I massive, pericardial tamponade and compression of the myocardium are life threatening conditions. The causes of pericardial effusion are varied, from idiopathic, neoplasms, iatrogenesis, and autoimmune. Pericardial tamponade can be a complication of neoplastic disease. Malignancy must be ruled out in every cardiac tamponade. Malignant etiology must be considered in patients with previous history of malignancy, pericarditis that does not respond to anti-inflammatory treatment, pericardial effusion that increases its amount rapidly, or recurrent pericardial effusion. Metastatic pericardial effusion due to lung cancer is not rare but not all lung cancers involve the same way the pericardium. In this paper, we present the case of a previously healthy patient with pericardial tamponade as presentation form of a lung adenocarcinoma and review the literature.
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