Multiple malignancies in the same patient account for 2% to 17% of all cancers. However, multiple synchronous primary tumours in the same patient are extremely rare. Most synchronous primary tumors involve the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, followed by both breast and genitourinary tract, and breast and gastrointestinal tract. Among gynaecological malignancies, synchronous primary carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary are the commonest. Synchronous primary neoplasm involving kidney and ovaries are extremely rare, with only few case reports in the literature; however, there are no reported cases in the Indian literature. We hereby report a case of 60 year old woman who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cancer and primary cytoreductive surgery for her ovarian cancer. In this report we present the first case in the Indian literature of synchronous primary cancers in right kidney and bilateral ovaries. Based on the combination of factors (diagnosis, treatment and demographics), it is expected that in the course of the coming years, the prevalence of patients with multiple primaries will increase. Careful attention should be paid to the differential diagnosis between double primary and metastatic tumours, based on the pathologic, radiological and clinical characteristics.
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