Introduction: When it becomes difficult for the elderly to go out due to a decrease in walking ability, the decline in their mental and physical function accelerates. Currently, elderly people who have difficulty going out have no effective measures in place. Therefore, we wanted to prevent their functional decline by visiting homes and intervening. For the intervention, a robot developed for brain training for the elderly people was used. The goal was not only brain training, but also to obtain psychological activation through interaction with robots and supporters.
Method: The subjects were elderly people who had difficulty going out. Researchers, supporters, and robot visited their homes to conduct brain training by robots and recollection methods were performed with supporters. Cognitive tests (immediate and delayed reproduction of 10 words) and psychological surveys (interviews) were conducted before and after the intervention.
Result: There were 29 subjects, 8 males, and 21 females, with an average age of 79.5 ± 4.95. The maximum score for the cognitive test is 10. Immediate playback was improved from 5.5 points to 8.1 points (p <0.01), and delayed playback was improved from 4.7 points to 7.5 points (p <0.01). In the analysis of psychological verbatim record, as a result of the pre-interview, “Once I stop going out, it becomes troublesome to get dressed up and go out”, “There are days when I don't talk about anything all day”, “If someone doesn't come or make a phone call, there are no chance of a conversation”. In the interview after the start, there were most categories as “I came to think that vitality is important”, “I became more motivated”, and “I'm looking forward to talking”. As for robots, there were many reactions such as cuteness, healing, and fun compared to interpersonal communication.
Conclusion: Brain training during the visits showed that there is a significant improvement in cognitive score, and that it is effective as a countermeasure for the elderly who cannot go out. In addition, the robot has a high affinity for all subjects, the effect of softening the tension associated with receiving the visit was confirmed. Conversation with a robot that resolves the shortage of human resources is meaningful because in the situation where no one talks to anyone throughout the day the utilization of robot shows the improvement in energy and motivation due to increased conversation. By supplementing the interaction with regular supporters to this, it can be a more effective measure.
National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. Status of connection and support between people. Survey on mutual support and life. 2013;17-25.
Abe K. Dementia- Now, what you really want to know 101. Musashino University Press. 2017;1-232.
Konno Y, Uesugi T. Examination of the Effects of Dohsa-Method Induced Positive Mind-Body Experience on Nostalgic Affects Using a EEG Pleasantness Scale and an Affective Imagery Scale. Human Sciences Research. 2003;25:63-72.
Hayashi M, Saito H. How does nostalgia by music work on rest and calculations? Journal of Hokkaido University of Education. 2013;64:39-48.
Al-Yahya E, Johansen-Berg H, et al. Prefrontal cortex activation while walking under dual-task conditions in stroke: a multimodal imaging study. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 2016;30:591-599.
Ohsug H, Ohgi S, et al. Differences in dualtask performance and prefrontal cortex activation between younger and older adults. BMC neuroscience 2013;14:1-9.
Anguera JA, Boccanfuso J, et al. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature. 2013;501: 97-101.
Jaeggi SM, Studer-Luethi B, et al. The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning implications for training and transfer. Intelligence. 2010;38: 625-635.
McNab F, Varrone A, et al. Changes in cortical dopamine D1 receptor binding associated with cognitive training. Science. 2009;323: 800-802.
Hirasawa K, Seki Y, et al. Effects of lifestyle improvement support centered on individual exercise programs. Shinshu Journal of Public Health. 2008;3:68-69.
Jowett S, Kanakoglou K, et al. The application of the 3+1Cs relationship model in executive coaching. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. 2012;64:183-197.
Jackson, D. personal trainers can use self-efﬁcacy theory to enhance exercise behavior in beginning exercisers. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;32:67-70.
Saito M, Kondo K, et al. Different association between the loss of healthy life expectancy and social isolation by life satisfaction among older people : A four-year follow-up study of AGES project. Japanese Journal of Gerontology. 2013;35: 331-341.
Aida J, Kondo K, et al. Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese. BMC Public Health. 2011;25;1-16.
Saito M, Kondo N, et al. Gender Differences on the Impacts of Social Exclusion on Mortality among Older Japanese : AGES Cohort Study. Social Science & Medicine. 2012;75: 940-945.
Cabinet Office. Survey on the willingness of the elderly to participate in the community. 2009 edition. Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 2009:1-29.
Kobayashi E, Fujiwara Y, et al. Social support availability and psychological well-being among the socially isolated elderly Differences by living arrangement and gender. Japanese Journal Of Public Health. 2011;58: 446-456.
Saczynski J, Pfeifer L, et al. The effect of social engagement on incident dementia: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. American journal of epidemiology. 2006;163: 433-440.
Martin L. Marital status, social capital, material conditions and self-rated health: A population-based study. Health Policy. 2009;93: 172-179.
Gerry V, Isaac L, et al. Who you know, where you live：social capital, neighborhood and health. Social Science & Medicine 2005;60:2799-2818．
Orma BE, Ruth W, et al. Individual-level analysis of social capital and health: A comparison of Arab and Jewish Israelis. Social Science & Medicine 2008;66:900-910．
Anme T, Shinohara R, et al. Social interaction and mortality: A seven‐year longitudinal study of elderly people. Japanese Journal Of Public Health. 2006;53: 681-687.
Misawa J, Kondo K. Social factors relating to depression among older people in Japan: analysis of longitudinal panel data from the AGES project, Aging & Mental Health. 2019;23: 1423-1432.
Abel EL, Kruger ML. Smile intensity in photographs predicts longevity. Psychological Science, 2010;21: 542-544.
Blazer DG, Hybels CF. What symptoms of depression predict mortality in community-dwelling
elders? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2004;52: 2052-2056.
Moskowitz, JT, Epel ES, et al. Positive affect uniquely predicts lower risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Health Psychology. 2008;27: 573-582.
Brummett BH, Boyle SH, et al. Positive affect is associated with cardiovascular reactivity, norepinephrine level, and morning rise in salivary cortisol. Psychophysiology. 2009;46: 862-869.
Brummett BH, Boyle SH, et al. Ratings of positive and depressive emotion as predictors of mortality in coronary patients. International Journal of Cardiology. 2005;100: 213-216.
Davidson KW, Mostofsky E, et al. Don't worry, be happy: positive affect and reduced 10-year incident coronary heart disease : The Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey. European Heart Journal. 2010;31: 1065-1070.
Ein N, Li L, et al. The effect of pet therapy on the physiological and subjective stress response: A meta-analysis. Stress Health. 2018;34: 477-489.
Moretti F, Ronchi D, et al. Pet therapy in elderly patients with mental illness. The Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society. 2011;11: 125-129.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.