Personal management of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is very important in preventing complications of other diseases for infected patients. We aimed to develop the mathematical models for predicting the performance of personal T2DM management.
We proposed three hypotheses as the basic principles to develop the fasting blood sugar (FBS) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) models. We tested and validated these two models using the FBS and HbA1c data collected from two clinical laboratories in Malaysia and one clinical laboratory in Indonesia from 16 March 2009 to 29 May 2016.
Using the power FBS model permits us to predict the FBS level of below 6 mmol/L after 1277 days of the T2DM management. Using the logarithmic HbA1c model permits to predict the HbA1c level in blood of below 6.4% after 2553 days of the T2DM management but never reaches below 6%. We verified that correlation between the FBS and HbA1c data is able to get an excellent fit with linear regression.
Person with T2DM can set goals for managing his disease and lifetime metabolic control to get better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and should pay attention to the main determinants of HRQoL. Using the FBS and HbA1c models as strategic analysis tool permits us to predict the effectiveness of T2DM management with an ultimate improvement in his quality of life to take care of himself.
P. Soewondo, A. Ferrario, D. L. Tahapary, “Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review,” Global Health, vol. 9, no. 63, Dec 2013.
M. Javanbakht, F. Abolhasani, A. Mashayekhi, et al., “Health related quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iran: A national survey,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 8, p. e44526, Aug 2012.
M. -M. Sandu, D. C. Protasiewicz, A. G. Firănescu, et al., “Data regarding the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes,” Rom J Diabetes Nutr Metab Dis, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 95-103, Mar 2016.
Y. Wu, Y. Ding, Y. Tanaka, et al., “Risk factors contributing to type 2 diabetes and recent advances in the treatment and prevention,” Int J Med Sci, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1185-1200, Sep 2014.
S. R. Shrivastava, P. S. Shrivastava, J. Ramasamy, “Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus,” J Diabetes Metab Disord, vol. 12, no. 14, Mar 2013.
D. J. Wexler, R. W. Grant, E. Wittenberg, et al., “Correlates of health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 1489-1497, Jul 2006.
M. E. J. Lean, W. S. Leslie, A. C. Barnes, et al., “Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial,” Lancet, vol. 391, no. 10120, pp. 541-551, Feb 2018.
Y. Lu, N. Wang, Y. Chen, et al., “Health-related quality of life in type-2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study in East China,” BMC Endocr Disord, vol. 17, no. 38, Jul 2017.
S. H. Zyoud, S. W. Al-Jabi, W. M. Sweileh, et al., “Relationship of treatment satisfaction to health-related quality of life among Palestinian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Findings from a cross-sectional study,” J Clin Transl Endocrinol, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 66-71, Mar 2015.
L. Chen, J. H. Pei, J. Kuang, et al., “Effect of lifestyle intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis,” Metabolism, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 338-47, Feb 2015.
W. T. Cade, “Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting,” Phys Ther, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1322-1335, Nov 2008.
M. J. Fowler, “Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes,” Clin Diabetes, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 77-82, Apr 2008.
J. M. Valderas, B. Starfield, B. Sibbald, et al., “Defining comorbidity: Implications for understanding health and health services,” Ann Fam Med, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 357-363, Jul-Aug 2009.
P. E. Wändell, “Quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus. An overview of research in primary health care in the Nordic countries,” Scand J Prim Health Care, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 68-74, Jun 2005.
M. Asif, “The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern,” J Educ Health Promot, vol. 3, no. 1, Feb 2014.
N. Ali, M. A. Fulazzaky, M. S. Mustapa, et al., “Assessment of fatigue and corrosion fatigue behaviours of the nitrogen ion implanted CpTi,” Int J Fatigue, vol. 61, pp. 184-190, Apr 2014.
M. A. Fulazzaky, “Determining the resistance of mass transfer for adsorption of the surfactant onto granular activated carbons from hydrodynamic column,” Chem Eng J, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 832-840, Feb 2011.
M. A. Fulazzaky, M. H. Khamidun, R. Omar, “Understanding of mass transfer resistance for the adsorption of solute onto porous material from the modified mass transfer factor models,” Chem Eng J, vol. 228, pp. 1023-1029, Jul 2013.
M. A. Fulazzaky, A. Talaiekhozani, T. Hadibarata, “Calculation of optimal gas retention time using a logarithmic equation applied to a bio-trickling filter reactor for formaldehyde removal from synthetic contaminated air,” RSC Adv, vol. 3, no. 15, pp. 5100-5107, Feb 2013.
M. A. Fulazzaky, N. M. Sunar, A. A. A. Latiff AAA, et al., “Empirical models of bio-sand filter to calculate the design parameters,” Water Supply, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 723-734, Dec 2009.
M. A. Fulazzaky, S. Abdullah, M. R. Salim, “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30,” RSC Adv, vol. 5, no. 127, pp. 104666-104673, Dec 2015.
E, Antona, Mathematical Models and Their Use in Engineering. In: A. Miele, A. Salvetti (eds) Applied Mathematics in Aerospace Science and Engineering. Mathematical Concepts and Methods in Science and Engineering, Boston: Springer, 1994, vol 44, pp. 395-433.
G. A. Hazelrigg, “On the role and use of mathematical models in engineering design,” J Mech Des, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 336-341, Sep 1999.
B. I. Verma, S. K. Ray, R. N. Srivastava “Mathematical models and their applications in medicine and health,” Health Popul Perspect Issues, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 42-58, Jan-Mar 1981.
R. B. Chambers, “The role of mathematical modeling in medical research: “research without patients?” Ochsner J, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 218-223, Oct 2000.
A. Trikkalinou, A. K. Papazafiropoulou, A. Melidonis, “Type 2 diabetes and quality of life,” World J Diabetes, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 120-129, Apr 2017.
T. Xu, L. L. M. Hanson, T. Lange, et al., “Workplace bullying and violence as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a multicohort study and meta-analysis,” Diabetologia, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 75-83, Jan 2018.
R. R. Little, W. L. Roberts, “A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement,” J Diabetes Sci Technol, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 446-451, May 2009.
J. Bolívar, A. Daponte, M. Rodríguez, et al., “The influence of individual, social and physical environment factors on physical activity in the adult population in Andalusia, Spain,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 60-77, Jan 2010.
M. B. Rise, A. Pellerud, L. Ø. Rygg, et al., “Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. e64009, May 2013.
X. Guo, Y. Park, N. D. Freedman ND, et al., “Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. e94715, Apr 2014.
S. Moebus, L. Göres, C. Lösch, et al., “Impact of time since last caloric intake on blood glucose levels,” Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 719-28, Sep 2011.
Z. Z. Shen, Y. Y. Huang, C. J. Hsieh, “Early short-term intensive multidisciplinary diabetes care: A ten-year follow-up of outcomes,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 130, pp. 133-141, Aug 2017.
R. Deng, “A review of the hypoglycemic effects of five commonly used herbal food supplements,” Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 50-60, Aprl 2012.
D. E. R. Warburton, C. W. Nicol, S. S. D. Bredin, “Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence,” CMAJ, vol. 174, no. 6, pp. 801-809, Mar 2006.
C. Bitterlich, D. Vordermark, “Analysis of health-related quality of life in patients with brain tumors prior and subsequent to radiotherapy,” Oncol Lett, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1841-1846, Aug 2017.
B. Rushforth, C. McCrorie, L. Glidewell, et al., “Barriers to effective management of type 2 diabetes in primary care: qualitative systematic review,” Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, no. 643, pp. e114-27, Feb 2016.
S. V. Edelman, W. H. Polonsky, “Type 2 diabetes in the real world: The elusive nature of glycemic control,” Diabetes Care, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1425-32, Nov 2017.
G. R. Spedding, “Comparing fluid mechanics models with experimental data,” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol. 358, no. 1437, pp. 1567-76, Sep 2003.
Z. He, S. Carini, T. Hao, et al., “A method for analyzing commonalities in clinical trial target populations,” AMIA Annu Symp Proc, vol. 2014, pp. 1777-1786, Nov 2014.
S. I. Sherwani, H. A. Khan, A. Ekhzaimy A, et al., “Significance of HbA1c test in diagnosis and prognosis of diabetic patients,” Biomark Insights, vol. 11, pp. 95-104, Jul 2016.
E. Standl, “Does using HbA1c inform diagnosis of diabetes in patients with coronary artery disease?” Eur Heart J, vol. 36, no. 19, pp. 1149-1151, May 2015.
J. B. Buse, S. Caprio, W. T. Cefalu, et al., “How do we define cure of diabetes?” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2133-5, Nov 2009.
R. Taylor, “Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes: tracing the reverse route from cure to cause,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1781-1789, Oct 2008.
K. Makris, L. Spanou, “Is there a relationship between mean blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin?” J Diabetes Sci Technol, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1572-1583, Nov 2011.
K. A. M. White, S. Daneshvari, J. Lilyquist, et al., “Prediabetes: The variation between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose,” Int J Diabetol Vasc Dis Res, vol. 2015, Suppl 2: 001, Jun 2015.
J. Casqueiro, J. Casqueiro, C. Alves, “Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis,” Indian J Endocrinol Metab, vol. 16, Suppl 1, pp. S27-S36, Mar 2012.
Y. H. Gan, “Host susceptibility factors to bacterial infections in type 2 diabetes,” PLoS Pathog, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. e1003794, Dec 2013.
D. Beran, A. Abdraimova, B. Akkazieva B, et al., “Diabetes in Kyrgyzstan: changes between 2002 and 2009,” Int J Health Plan Manage, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. e121-e137, Apr-Jun 2013.
K. M. Pantalone, A. D. Misra-Hebert, T. M. Hobbs, “Effect of glycemic control on the Diabetes Complications Severity Index score and development of complications in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes,” J Diabetes, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 192-199, Mar 2018.
P. I. Li, J. N. Wang, H. R. Guo, “A long-term quality-of-care score for predicting the occurrence of macrovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 139, pp. 72-80, May 2018.
A. Pichon-Riviere, V. Irazola, A. Beratarrechea, et al., “Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study,” Int J Health Policy Manage, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 475-80, Apr 2015.
W. Xu, J. Weng, “Current role of short-term intensive insulin strategies in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes,” J Diabetes, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 268-274, Sep 2013.
J. K. Dickinson, S. J. Guzman, M. D. Maryniuk, et al., “The use of language in diabetes care and education,” Diabetes Care, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 1790-1799, Dec 2017.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.