Seroprevalence and Real-time PCR Detection of Brucellosis in Abattoirs Animals as a Potential Route of Infection in Egypt


  •   Amira Mohamed Zakaria

  •   Salwa F. Ahmed

  •   Mohamed S. Motawae


Brucellosis is among the most common and economically serious zoonosis worldwide. Brucellosis in Egypt is an endemic problem among animals and humans. This work intended to evaluate the conventional serological and molecular approaches as a tool for studying the prevalence of brucellosis within abattoir’s animals in two large Egyptian provinces.  Two hundred and thirty (n=230) blood and serum samples were collected  from (2-3) years male calves in two Egyptian abattoirs. Rose Bengal  test (RBT) and modified in-house ELISA were  applied  to determine the seroprevalence of  Brucellosis  in abattoirs animals while quantitative Taqman real-time PCRs (RT-PCR) were implemented for the characterization of Brucella species. The overall prevalence of brucellosis  in the two proveinces was (53.9 %) , (75.2 %) and (79.1 %) as determined by ELISA ,RBT and RT- PCR assays respectively. Brucella DNA was successfully amplified from serum samples as well as blood. A total of n= 182 samples (79.1 %) were identified by real time PCR amplification for IS711 gene as Brucella genus, n= 118 (64.8 %) were reported as B. aborts while n= 85 (46.7 %) were reported as B. melitensis. N= 44 (24.17 %) from the collected samples comprised the two species of bacteria. This study endorses the application of rose Bengal test as a sensitive and cost effective  serological test for brucellosis and real-time PCR as a distinguishing tool to detect the causative agents. Our findings indicate a significantly high prevalence of Brucella  antibodies and DNA in blood and serum samples  which poses a crucial  threat to public health in Egypt.


Keywords: Brucellosis, Abattoirs , Molecular typing , Seroprevalence , Real- time PCR, Egypt


bdel-Razik K, Ismail E, Youssef H, Hashad M. (2008). Diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy animals using nested polymerase chain reaction. Int J Dairy Sci 3, 55-62.

Amin A, Hamdy M, Ibrahim A (2001). Detection of Brucella melitensis in semen using the polymerase chain reaction assay. Vet Microbiol 83: 37-44.

Amin M, Ahmed S, Zaki H, Ismail R (2012) Serological and molecular studies on the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Nature and Science 10: 68-76.

Aidaros H (2005) Global perspectives – the Middle East: Egypt. Rev Sci Tech 24: 589-596.

Altwegg, M., and Bohl, E., 1985. Evaluation of a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive screening test for the serological diagnosis of human brucellosis. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A] 260:65-70.

Baum, M., Zamir, O., Bergman-Rios, R., Katz, E., Beider, Z., Cohen, A., Banai, M. 1995. Comparative evaluation of microagglutination test and serum agglutination test as supplementary diagnostic methods for brucellosis. J Clin Microbiol 33:2166-70.

Chand, P., Sharma, A.K. (2004): Situation of brucellosis in bovines at organized cattle farms belonging to three different states. Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology,; 6: 11–15.

El-Sherbini A, Kabbash I, Schelling E, Shennawy SE, Shalapy N, et al. (2007) Seroprevalences and local variation of human and livestock brucellosis in two villages in Gharbia governorate, Egypt. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 923—928.

Erdenebaatar, J., Bayarsaikhan, B., Yondondorj, A., Watarai, M., Shirahata, T., Jargalsaikhan, E., Kawamoto, K., Makino, S.: Epidemiological and serological survey of Brucellosis in Mongolia by ELISA using sarcosine extracts. Microbiology Immunology, 2004; 48: 571–77.

Fadeel, M.A., Wasfy, M.O., Pimentel, G., Klena, J.D., Mahoney, F., Hajjeh, R. (2006). Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in surveillance and clinical settings in Egypt. Saudi Med J; 27(7): 975-98

Fadeel MA, Robyn A. Stoddard, Guillermo Pimentel and Alex R. Hofffmaster (2011). Comparison of four commercial IgM and IgG ELISA kits for diagnosing brucellosis 60, 1767–1773 DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.033381-0

Garrity, G.M. (2001): Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York

Gwida M M, El-Gohary A H, Melzer F, Tomaso H, Rösler U, Wernery U, et al., Comparison of diagnostic tests for the detection of Brucella spp. in camel sera. BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:525

Hassanain NA, Ahmed WM (2012) Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Egypt with emphasis on potential risk factors. World Journal of Medical Sciences 7: 81-86.

Hegazy Y, Ridler A, Guitian F (2009) Assessment and simulation of the implementation of brucellosis control programme in an endemic area of the Middle East. Epidemiol Infect 137: 1436–1448.

Hegazy YM, Moawad A, Osman S, Ridler A, Guitian J (2011) Ruminant brucellosis in the Kafr El Sheikh governorate of the Nile delta, Egypt: Prevalence of a neglected zoonosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e944. doi:910.1371/journal.pntd.0000944.

Hinić V, Brodard I, Thomann A, Cvetnić Z, Makaya PV, Frey J, Abril C. (2008). Novel identification and differentiation of Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis, and B. neotomae suitable for both conventional and real-time PCR systems. J Microbiol Methods. 2008 Oct;75(2):375-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.

Johnson, C.A., Walker, R.D. (1992): Clinical signs and diagnosis of Brucella canis infection. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian,; 14: 763–772.

Koneman, E. W., S. D. Allen, W. M. Janda, P. C. Schreckenberger, and W. C. Winn, Jr. 1997. Brucella species, p. 431–436. In E. W. Koneman, S. D. Allen, W. M. Janda, P. C. Schreckenberger, and W. C. Winn, Jr. (ed.), Diagnostic microbiology, 5th ed. Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa.

Maleknejad P, Peeri-DoGaheh H, AmirZargar AA, Jafari S, Fatol¬lahzadeh B. (2007). Diagnosis of brucellosis by use of BACTEC blood cul¬ture and confirmation by PCR. J Vet Res.;62(4):83-6.

McDermott J, Arimi S (2002) Brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology, control and impact. Vet Microbiol 90: 111-134.

O'Leary S, Sheahan M, Sweeney T (2006). Brucella abortus detection by PCR assay in blood, milk and lymph tissue of serologically positive cows. Res Vet Sci, 81:170-176.

Wareth G, Melzer F, Elschner MC, Neubauer H, Roesler U (2014) Detection of Brucella melitensis in bovine milk and milk products from apparently healthy animals in Egypt by realtime PCR. J Infect Dev Ctries 8:1339-1343.

Zerva, L Bourantas, K Mitka, S Kansouzidou, A and Legakis NJ (2001). Serum Is the Preferred Clinical Specimen for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis by PCR DOI: 10.1128/JCM.39.4.1661–1664.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Zakaria, A., Ahmed, S., & Motawae, M. (2019). Seroprevalence and Real-time PCR Detection of Brucellosis in Abattoirs Animals as a Potential Route of Infection in Egypt. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 1(5).